Many large new transmission systems for gathering and delivering Earth's vast, diverse, dispersed, renewable energy resources are needed. Both high voltage d.c. electricity networks and gaseous H (GH2) pipelines are attractive, complementary, and competitive. New natural gas (NG) transmission pipeline systems may be built with pipes capable of transporting 100% GH2, for future conversion to renewables-H service (RHS) at 100% GH2, to convey energy from windpower, biomass and other renewable sources to the market. Service X65 or composite reinforced line pipe may be suitable choices. Since well-constructed and well-maintained pipelines have long service lives, the increased investment required for construction with RHS-capable line pipe may be justified. These pipeline systems may be retrofitted with fittings necessary for future RHS. Although industry has safely pipelined GH2 for decades, these systems are not designed for frequently-varying pressures and for large-scale, long-distance, cross-country collection from many dispersed nodes and diverse sources, as required by RHS. No pipelines for such a service exist. The public is unfamiliar with H and anxious about its safety. Thus, a new pilot-scale R and D and demonstration pipeline system, an International Renewable H Transmission Demonstration Facility (IRHTDF), is needed.
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