The technique of energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction to study the orientation of microscopic crystalline particles dispersed in a liquid has been described recently. This complements previous neutron diffraction studies by permitting measurements at higher spatial resolution. Work with synchrotron radiation and high-energy X-rays has allowed studies on liquid dispersions flowing in pipes with a thickness of about 1 cm and a spatial resolution of 100 μm. Kaolinite is often found as a dispersion of monocrystalline, microscopic plates. The crystallographic layer structure is commensurate with the particle shape: the 00l direction is normal to the plane of the plates. Measurements of diffraction of the flowing liquid dispersion in a pipe oriented in various directions to the incident beam can be used to deduce the average orientation and order parameters of the particles. The competing effects of alignment with walls and in flow fields were observed. Further work has measured the orientation near a bend in a pipe
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