The current results of the present series demonstrate that intestinal allografts are more vulnerable to rejection and continue to be at a significantly higher risk long after transplantation compared with isolated liver allograft recipients. Unexpectedly, a combined liver allograft does not protect small bowel from rejection. The necessarily continuous heavy immunosuppression for these unique recipients is potentially self-defeating. This is clearly demonstrated by their high susceptibility to early and late infectious complications after transplantation as reported in this issue. With the minimal graft-versus-host disease threat in this clinical trial, our revised protocol for future intestinal transplantation is to maximize the passenger leukocyte traffic with supplementary bone marrow from the same intestinal donor in an attempt to augment the development of systemic chimerism and the gradual induction of donor-specific nonreactivity
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