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Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth: estudo clínico em 45 pacientes Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: clinical features in 45 cases

By Marcos R. G. de freitas, Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento and Gabriel R. de freitas

Abstract

A doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) é uma das moléstias mais frequentes do sistema nervoso periférico e ocupa o primeiro lugar dentre as afecções neuromusculares hereditárias. Estudamos 45 pacientes com doença de CMT atendidos no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro da Universidade Federal Fluminense. Foram classificados de acordo com a neurocondução em: tipo I (desmielinizante), 11 casos; e tipo II (anoxal), 34 casos. Vinte e três tinham herança autossômica dominante, 7 casos eram do tipo autossômico recessivo e 15 eram esporádicos. A maioria teve o início dos sintomas na 1ª ou 2ª décadas. Todos tiveram paresia distal dos membros inferiores. Nos membros superiores a paresia foi vista em 38,2%. A amiotrofia distal ocorreu em 80% nos membros inferiores e em 50% nos superiores. A arreflexia patelar e aquiliana foi elevada. Abolição dos reflexos profundos nos membros superiores ocorreu em 28%. As alterações sensitivas limitaram-se a discreta hipoestesia nos membros inferiores. Em 7 enfermos encontramos hipertrofia dos troncos nervosos. Os pés cavos e a escoliose foram vistos em 21 casos e 7 casos respectivamente. Tremor nas mãos foi encontrado em 6 pacientes. Outros sinais mais raros, como oligofrenia e atrofia óptica, foram vistos excepcionalmente. A evolução da doença foi quase sempre benigna. Somente 7 casos evoluíram rapidamente.<br>Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the commonest inherited peripheral neuropathy. The clinical study of 45 patients with CMT is presented. They were derived from Antonio Pedro Hospital of Universidade Federal Fluminense in Niteroi, RJ, Brazil. Such patients could be divided by the motor conduction velocity in two types: a demyelinating form or type I (11 cases) and an axonal form or type II (34 cases). The disease was inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in 23 patients and as an autosomal recessive trait in 7 cases. In 15 patients the disorder was sporadic. The age of onset was in most of our cases before the 20 years. All of them had distal weakness in lower limbs. 38.2% had also distal weakness in upper limbs. 80% had distal wasting of the lower limbs and 50% had distal wasting of upper limbs. The tendon reflexes were absent in 64% in lower limbs and in 28% in upper limbs. The sensitive impairment in the distal regions of the extremities was mild in most patients. We found enlargement of peripheral nerves in 7 patients of type I. Pes cavus was present in 21 cases and scoliosis in 7. We found postural tremor of hands in 6 patients. In 9 cases there were rare features as mental retardation, trigeminal nevralgia, optic atrophy, deafness and calf enlargement. In most of our cases the clinical course was very slow progressive. A greater severity was seen in our sporadic cases

Topics: doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth, quadro clínico, hereditariedade, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, clinical features, inheritance, Neurosciences. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry, RC321-571, Internal medicine, RC31-1245, Medicine, R, DOAJ:Neurology, DOAJ:Medicine (General), DOAJ:Health Sciences
Publisher: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia (ABNEURO)
Year: 1995
DOI identifier: 10.1590/S0004-282X1995000400001
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:47b106654c2746aeb5ea70d885a41c81
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