Sixty four consecutive patients underwent renal homotransplantation 10 1/6 to 11 1/2 yr ago, 46 from related and 18 from nonrelated living donors. Thirty six of these recipients were alive when this series was presented to the American Surgical Association in 1965. Now, nine yr later, 26 (72%) of the 36 still survive, in 22 instances with function of their original grafts. The 10 who died in the interim tended to have subnormal renal function or graft failure. However, the actual causes of death included 2 or more examples each of myocardial infarction, hepatitis, or other systemic infections. The prognosis for achieving a one decade survival was not obviously related to HL-A tissue match. The best results were with related kidneys, within which subgroup 24 (52%) of the original recipients are still alive. However, there was no particular category of consanguineous donors that had a marked superiority. Only 2 of 18 nonrelated recipients are still alive. All 36 patients who were alive in 1965 had a biopsy of their renal homograft. Kidneys that were destined to function for a decade tended to have relatively minor histopathologic abnormalities. If serious glomerular lesions were found, the outlook for long graft survival was grave. Vascular lesions had a somewhat less serious import. Mononuclear cell infiltration, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis proved prognostically to be the least significant. Long term followup of these early cases has shown the durability of chronic renal homografts, particularly if these are from related donors, and has demonstrated the very high degree of rehabilitation that could be achieved even in the early days of renal homotransplantation
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