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Cirurgia cardíaca no idoso Cardiac surgery in elderly patients

By Danton R. da Rocha LOURES, Roberto Gomes de CARVALHO, Leonardo MULINARI, Arleto Zacarias SILVA Jr., Carlos Augusto SCHMIDLIN, Maricélia BROMMELSTRÖET, Vinícius Nicolau VOITOWICZ, Marcelo Haddad DANTAS, Ricardo José CHOMA, Sérgio SHIBATA, Marcello Laneza FELICIO, Dênis BONATTO and Nilo ANTUNES FILHO

Abstract

Com o aumento da expectativa de vida da população brasileira cresce o número de pessoas com idade superior a 70 anos que necessitam de operação cardíaca. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados, retrospectivamente, 75 pacientes com idade 3 a 70 anos submetidos a operação cardíaca no HC-UFPR, entre 1995 e 1999, com objetivo de analisarmos os resultados imediatos e tardios. A idade variou de 70 a 88 anos, sendo 34 (46,7%) do sexo feminino e 41 (53,3%) do masculino. Os principais sintomas foram angina (81,3%), dispnéia (42,6%) e síncope (16%). Os pacientes encontravam-se em classe I (57,3%), classe II (17,3%), classe III (18,6%) e classe IV (6,6%) da NYHA, 61,3% eram hipertensos, 48% tabagistas, 28% diabéticos e 9,3% haviam sido submetidos a operação cardíaca prévia. Foram realizadas 50 (66,6%) revascularizações do miocárdio, 9 (12%) trocas de valva aórtica, 5 (6,6%) operações de aorta, 4 (5,2%) trocas valvares + revascularização miocárdica e outros procedimentos (7%). As principais complicações pós-operatórias foram cardiovasculares: arritmias ventriculares (22,6%), arritmias supraventriculares (21,3%), baixo débito cardíaco (16%); infecciosas (16%) e pulmonares (9,3%). O tempo médio de permanência na UTI foi de 5 dias. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 13,3% e houve 5 óbitos tardios. Dos sobreviventes, 78,4% compareceram para seguimento ambulatorial. O tempo médio de seguimento foi de 20,7 meses e a sobrevida foi de 92%; um dos óbitos tardios foi de origem cardiovascular. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de serem pacientes de maior complexidade clínica pela maior incidência de doenças crônicas e acometimento de outros órgãos, os avanços na cirurgia cardíaca e terapia intensiva tornaram possível a intervenção com baixa morbi-mortalidade.<br>BACKGROUND: Because of the increase in the life expectancy of the Brazilian population, elderly patients are being increasingly referred to cardiac surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-five patients, 70 years of age or older, who underwent cardiac surgery in the HC-UFPR, between 1995 and 1999 were studied. The purpose of this study was to analyze early and long-term results. Ages from 70 to 88 years, with 34 females (46.7%) and 41 males (53.3%). Symptoms included angina (81.3%), dyspnea (42.6%) and syncope (16%). There was 57.3% of patients in NYHA class I, 17.3% in class II, 18.6% in class III and 6.6% in class IV. The main risk factors listed were high blood pressure (61.3%), smoke (48%), diabetes mellitus (28%) and 9.3% had already had cardiac operations. Surgical procedures included 50 coronary artery bypass grafts - CABG (66.6%), 9 aortic valve replacements (12%), 5 aortic operations (6.6%), 4 CABG + valve replacement (5.2%) and other procedures (7%). The main postoperative complications were cardiovascular - ventricular arrhythmias (22.6%), supraventricular arrhythmias (21.3%), low cardiac output (16%) - infections (16%) and pulmonary problems (9.3%). The median stay in the ICU was 5 days. RESULTS: Sixty-five (78.4%) survivors had complete follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 20.7 months and long-term survival was 92%. Only one of the late deaths was cardiac related. CONCLUSION: Although this subgroup is associated with chronic diseases compromising other organs, advances in cardiac surgery and intensive care have made possible an intervention with safety and low morbidity and mortality

Topics: Envelhecimento, Procedimentos cirúrgicos cardíacos, Cardiopatias, Cardiopatias, Cirurgia cardíaca, Aging, Cardiac surgical procedures, Heart disease, Cardiac surgical procedures, Diseases of the circulatory (Cardiovascular) system, RC666-701, Specialties of internal medicine, RC581-951, Internal medicine, RC31-1245, Medicine, R, DOAJ:Cardiovascular, DOAJ:Medicine (General), DOAJ:Health Sciences, Surgery, RD1-811
Publisher: Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular
Year: 2000
DOI identifier: 10.1590/S0102-76382000000100001
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:6b5bc8eb141c4fdbba19840ad2ff71e6
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