HLA class II genes are strongly associated with susceptibility and resistance to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The present study reports the HLA-DRB1 genotyping of 41 IDDM patients and 99 healthy subjects from the Southeast of Brazil (Campinas region). Both groups consisted of an ethnic mixture of Caucasian, African Negro and Amerindian origin. HLA-DRB1*03 and *04 alleles were found at significantly higher frequencies among IDDM patients compared to the controls (DRB1*03: 48.8% vs 18.2%, P<0.005, RR = 4.27; DRB1*04: 43.9% vs 15.1%, P<0.008, RR = 4.37) and were associated with a susceptibility to the disease. DRB1*03/*04 heterozygosity conferred a strong IDDM risk (RR = 5.44). In contrast, the HLA-DRB1*11 allele frequency was lower among IDDM patients (7.3% vs 26.3% in controls), but the difference was not significant. These data agree with those described for other populations and allow genetic characterization of IDDM in Brazi
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