Considerations are made on the role of HTL.V-I in the etiopathogeny of HAM/ TSP. Neuroepidemiologic data reported in the literature are revisited for this purpose. Among results of this evaluation it is pointed-out that the Gkinawan Community of Brazil presents ethnographic and demographic characteristics which are ideal for designining new studies. For instance, analyses on HTLV-I and on HAM/TSP in face of the cohort of such community classified according to time and direction of the migration (Japan-Brazil and vice-versa), will ensure promising results for the understanding of etiopathogeny of HAM/TSP. They can also be paths towards clarifying the simultaneous generating, of geographical foci of the disease distant one the other, as that of Tumaco and that of south Japan
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