The resurgence of malaria in the Americas has renewed interest in Anopheles biology. Anopheles darlingi, An. albimanus, An. nuneztovai and An aquasalis are reconfirmed as major malaria vectors and other species are playing important roles in regional malaria transmission. Adultbiting activity and larval ecology are discussed in detail. Seasonal abundance and daily biting activity of Anopheles vary considerably among species and geographically for the same species. Anopheles albimanus has the least amount of variation in biting activity over its range and An. darlingi has the greatest. All species studied are more exophilic and exophagic than endophilic and endophagic. Anopheles darling is more antropophilic, endophilic and endophagic than other Anophelines. Larval studies remain more descriptive than comprehensive. Research on Anophelines is becoming more integrated and biologists are using new biochemical techniques and ecological principles to answer critical questions. This "pluralization" will help us understand species complexes, population dynamics and malaria transmission. integrated control programs will require more regional, in-depth ecological studies
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