Background: In this study the level of IL-23 and IL-27 produced by macrophages derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture collected from patients with healing or non-healing form of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesion were compared before and after treatment with live Leishmania to explore whether IL-23 or IL-27 plays any role in healing process of cutaneous lesions induced by L. major.Methods: Twenty patients resident in Isfahan Province, with healing or non-healing form of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesion caused by Leishmania major participated in this study. In vitro productions of IL-23 and IL-27 by peripheral blood derived macrophages, before and after stimulation with live L. major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) promastigotes were evaluated using ELISA method. Patient with healing form of lesion received no treatment and patient with non-healing form of lesion received at least 2 courses of glucantime.Results: The mean production of IL-23 and IL-27 from macrophages of patients with healing form of lesion was significantly higher than patients with non-healing form of lesion. The levels of IL-23 and IL-27 in culture supernatants before and after stimulation in healing form of CL was significantly higher than non- healing form of CL (P < 0.001).Conclusion: IL-23 and IL-27 might play a role in human leishmaniasis and further studies are needed to understand the role of IL-23 and IL-27 in leishmaniasis
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