<p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) carriers co-infected with and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been known to be at higher risk of their related diseases than mono-infected individuals. The recent studies clarified that IL-28B polymorphism rs8099917 is associated with not only the HCV therapeutic response by IFN, but also innate immunity and antiviral activity. The aim of our research was to clarify study whether IL-28B gene polymorphism (rs8099917) is associated with HTLV-1/HCV co-infection.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The genotyping and viral-serological analysis for 340 individuals showed that IL-28B genotype distribution of rs8099917 SNP did not differ significantly by respective viral infection status. However, the IL-28B mRNA expression level was 3.8 fold higher in HTLV-1 mono-infection than HTLV-1/HCV co-infection. The high expression level was associated with TT (OR, 6.25), whiles the low expression was associated with co-infection of the two viruses (OR, 9.5). However, there was no association between down-regulation and ATL development (OR, 0.8).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>HTLV-1 mono-infection up-regulates the expression of IL-28B transcripts in genotype-dependent manner, whiles HTLV-1/HCV co-infection down-regulates regardless of ATL development.</p
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