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ATF3, an HTLV-1 bZip factor binding protein, promotes proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia cells

By Ohshima Koichi, Satou Yorifumi, Yasunaga Jun-ichirou, Hagiya Keita and Matsuoka Masao

Abstract

<p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy of CD4<sup>+ </sup>T-cells caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The <it>HTLV-1 bZIP factor </it>(<it>HBZ</it>) gene, which is encoded by the minus strand of the viral genome, is expressed as an antisense transcript in all ATL cases. By using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) as an HBZ-interacting protein. ATF3 has been reported to be expressed in ATL cells, but its biological significance is not known.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that ATF3 interacts with HBZ. Expression of ATF3 was upregulated in ATL cell lines and fresh ATL cases. Reporter assay revealed that ATF3 could interfere with the HTLV-1 Tax's transactivation of the 5' proviral long terminal repeat (LTR), doing so by affecting the ATF/CRE site, as well as HBZ. Suppressing ATF3 expression inhibited proliferation and strongly reduced the viability of ATL cells. As mechanisms of growth-promoting activity of ATF3, comparative expression profiling of ATF3 knockdown cells identified candidate genes that are critical for the cell cycle and cell death, including cell division cycle 2 (CDC2) and cyclin E2. ATF3 also enhanced p53 transcriptional activity, but this activity was suppressed by HBZ.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Thus, ATF3 expression has positive and negative effects on the proliferation and survival of ATL cells. HBZ impedes its negative effects, leaving ATF3 to promote proliferation of ATL cells via mechanisms including upregulation of CDC2 and cyclin E2. Both HBZ and ATF3 suppress Tax expression, which enables infected cells to escape the host immune system.</p

Topics: Medicine (General), R5-920, Medicine, R, DOAJ:Medicine (General), DOAJ:Health Sciences, Immunologic diseases. Allergy, RC581-607
Publisher: BioMed Central
Year: 2011
DOI identifier: 10.1186/1742-4690-8-19
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:137b81a3906345a9b1b10720267b91e8
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