The study summarizes the research literature on the effect of testing on student achievement, which comprises several hundred studies conducted from the early 20th century to the present day. Only survey studies, however, are included here (N studies = 247; N effects = 813; total respondent population . 700,000). Moreover, the surveys summarized here are limited to North America from the year 1958–2008. Surveys measure perceptions of effects—either through public opinion polls or surveys of groups selected within program evaluations. The mean effect size (for the perception that testing has a positive effect on achievement) exceeds +1.0, a very large effect. Effect sizes are relatively weaker, however, for situations in which one group is held accountable for the performance of another—holding either teachers or schools accountable for student scores
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