A methodology is proposed to design low leakage registers by considering the type of timing path, i.e., short or long, and type of register, i.e., launching or capturing. Three different dual threshold voltage registers are developed where each register trades, depending upon the timing path, a different timing constraint for reducing the leakage current. For example, the first proposed register is used as a launching register in a noncritical path, trading clock-to-Q delay for leakage current. Other timing constraints such as setup and hold times are maintained the same not to introduce any timing violations. Alternatively, the second and third registers, trade, respectively, setup time and hold time for leakage current while maintaining clock-to-Q delay constant. The effect of the proposed methodology on leakage current is investigated for four technology nodes. The overall reduction in the leakage current of a register can exceed 90% while maintaining the clock frequency and other design parameters such as area and dynamic power the same. Three ISCAS 89 benchmark circuits are utilized to evaluate the methodology, demonstrating, on average, 23% reduction in the overall leakage current
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