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Diagnóstico y control de la acidez en suelos sulfatados ácidos en el Distrito de riego del Alto Chicamocha (Boyacá) mediante pruebas de incubación

By Castro Hugo E., Gómez Manuel I., Munévar Oscar E. and Hernández Dilsa M.

Abstract

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 </style> <![endif]--> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: ";Cambria";,";serif";;">Los procesos de acidificación en suelos sulfatados ácidos (</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: ";Cambria";,";serif";;">SSA</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: ";Cambria";,";serif";;">) son complejos, con presencia de sales metálicas que por su carácter químico restringen severamente la productividad agropecuaria de las tierras; es el caso de los </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: ";Cambria";,";serif";;">SSA </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: ";Cambria";,";serif";;">del valle alto del río Chicamocha (Boyacá), donde existen alrededor de 3.000 ha afectadas en diferente grado por este problema. El diagnóstico y el control adecuados de la acidez mediante enmiendas básicas no se consideran integralmente en estos suelos: cuando se hacen para establecer cultivos, se incurre con frecuencia en aplicaciones generalizadas con diferentes dosis de cales, sin tener en cuenta el estado de acidez de áreas modales representativas. El presente estudio determinó, a través de pruebas de incubación en laboratorio, los requerimientos de cal para cada uno de los perfiles modales representativos de unidades de </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: ";Cambria";,";serif";;">SSA, </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: ";Cambria";,";serif";;">en términos de equivalente químico de CaCO3 (</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: ";Cambria";,";serif";;">EQ </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: ";Cambria";,";serif";;">CaCO3). Los resultados muestran que para el diagnóstico adecuado del requerimiento de enmiendas calcáreas en </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: ";Cambria";,";serif";;">SSA </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: ";Cambria";,";serif";;">debe considerarse: 1) los procesos químicos que caracterizan </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: ";Cambria";,";serif";;">SSA </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: ";Cambria";,";serif";;">actuales y <span> </span>pseudosulfatados; 2) la neutralización del aluminio de cambio hasta niveles inferiores al 20% de saturación para lograr pH entre 4,5 y 5,0; 3) el empleo de materiales encalantes de alta reactividad química que aseguren la neutralización de la acidez y el mejoramiento nutricional del suelo y 4) el tiempo de reacción de la enmienda, que no debe<span>  </span>ser inferior a 30 d. </span></p&gt

Topics: Agriculture (General), S1-972, Agriculture, S, DOAJ:Agriculture (General), DOAJ:Agriculture and Food Sciences, Plant ecology, QK900-989
Publisher: Centro Editorial of Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Year: 2006
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:2844a5c242ab47e49a6aa01ed93b5e02
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