Recently, several reports have suggested that HMGB1 (the high-mobility group box-1) plays a key role in tumor angiogenesis through multiple mechanisms, including up-regulation of proangiogenic factors. This study was conducted to investigate the prognostic role and the effects of chemotherapy on serum (ELISA) angiogenic factors: HMGB1, survivin and VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) in patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The study entered 40 patients (31 man) and 15 healthy volunteers (control group). Peripheral blood samples were taken before and after four cycles of chemotherapy. The mean serum HMGB1 and VEGF levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced NSCLC than in controls (p=0.024, p=0.028, respectively). The levels of survivin in NSCLC patients were comparable to controls. No correlation was found between HMGB1, survivin and VEGF concentrations and the histological type and staging of lung cancer. Similarly, no correlation was revealed between the concentrations of HMGB1, survivin and VEGF and the effect of chemotherapy. However, in patients with NSCLC, HMGB1 positevely correlated with survivin (R=0.814, p=0.007) before chemotherapy, and negatively with VEGF (R=-0.841, p=0.035) after chemotherapy. When the cut-off values of serum HMGB1, survivin and VEGF (2.38 ng/ml, 81.92 pg/ml, 443.26 pg/ml, respectively) were used, the prognoses of high and low groups were not different. Concluding, patients with NSCLC have a higher serum concentration of HMGB1 and VEGF, while survivin levels are comparable to healthy individuals. In our opinion, determination of HMGB1, survivin and VEGF concentrations has no clinical significance in the prognosis of the survival time in lung cancer
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