Metacamopia oligoplites n. sp., a gill filament parasite of carangid fishes of three species of Oligoplites Gill, O. palometa (Cuvier), O. saurus (Bloch & Schneider), and O. saliens (Bloch), from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described and illustrated. Metacamopia oligoplites n. sp. differs from M. indica by: the shape of the body; the pre-, para-, and post-germarial testes; vaginas lacking sclerotized structures; well-developed seminal receptacles; muscular sleeves around the constriction between the vaginas and the seminal receptacles; and the haptor highly asymmetric, with a large, heel-like area; and differs from M. chorinemi by: the esophagus lacking diverticles; a larger number of testes (26-55) and not just, approximately 10; and the vaginas lacking sclerotized structures of any kind. This is the first record of Metacamopia in the South Atlantic Ocean. The generic diagnosis of Metacamopia is emended. Hargicola oligoplites is reported for the first time in the South Atlantic Ocean. Oligoplites palometa and O. saliens are new host records for Hargicola oligoplites
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