A recent set of case studies on resilience of ecocultures forms the basis for our review of and comment on the resilience literature. We note the diversity of definitions of resilience and the confusion this creates in implementing resilience studies. We develop a synthesis view that establishes a framework for defining resilience in an implementable way. This framework emphasises the importance of defining the source of and magnitude of shocks. Next, we outline measurement issues, including a variety of performance measures. We argue that self-determination and local ownership of resources is supported in the cases, and review the effectiveness of the informal insurance arrangements that are observed. We close with the variables suggested by the case studies to include in a resilience index and lessons for regional goverments developing resilience policy.
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