This paper offers an analysis of institutional aspects of professional training in Tunisia. We describe briefly the genesis of this system and pointed out that Tunisia in spite of remarkable progress, suffers from some problems related to the low and partial integration of the professional training system in the general system of training. In a more precise way, the implement of professional training turns out incapable to anticipate future professions. Furthermore, when certain professions are not any more asked on the labour market, the implement continues to form candidates without taking into account the change of demand in labour market. Also, the output of the professional training system continues to convey a negative image with the public as well as companies. Finally, linkages between professional training and the other elements of the system of training are little numerous, or even inexistent. All these dysfunctionalities, and many others, exist well and truly in both countries.