Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium acuminatum are toxigenic species that contaminate cereal crops from\ud diverse climatic regions. They are common in Spanish cereals. The information available on their\ud phylogenetics and toxigenic profiles is, however, insufficient to assist risk evaluation. In this work,\ud phylogenetic analyses were performed using partial sequences of the translation elongation factor gene\ud (EF-1a) of F. equiseti and F. acuminatum strains isolated from barley and wheat from Spain and other\ud countries. The Northern and Southern European F. equiseti strains largely separated into two phylogenetically\ud distinct clusters. This suggests the existence of two distinct populations within this species,\ud explaining its presence in these regions of markedly different climate. Production of type A and B\ud trichothecenes by the Spanish strains, examined in wheat cultures using a multitoxin analytical method,\ud indicated that F. equiseti could produce deoxynivalenol and nivalenol and other trichothecenes, at\ud concentrations that might represent a significant risk of toxin contamination for Southern European\ud cereals. F. acuminatum showed low intraspecific genetic variability and 58% of the strains could produce\ud deoxynivalenol at low level. Neither species was found to produce T-2 or HT-2 toxins. The present results\ud provide important phylogenetic and toxigenic information essential for the accurate prediction of\ud toxigenic risk
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