The objectives of this study were to assess diversity and genetic structure of a collection of Spanish durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L) landraces, using SSRs, DArTs and gliadin-markers, and to correlate the distribution of diversity with geographic and climatic features, as well as agro-morphological traits. A high level of diversity was detected in the genotypes analyzed, which were separated into nine populations with a moderate to great genetic divergence among them. The three subspecies taxa, dicoccon, turgidum and durum, present in the collection, largely determined the clustering of the populations. Genotype variation was lower in dicoccon (one major population) and turgidum (two major populations) than in durum (five major populations). Genetic differentiation by the agro-ecological zone of origin was greater in dicoccon and turgidum than in durum. DArT markers revealed two geographic substructures, east-west for dicoccon and northeast-southwest for turgidum. The ssp. durum had a more complex structure, consisting of seven populations with high intra-population variation. DArT markers allowed the detection of subgroups within some populations, with agro-morphological and gliadin differences, and distinct agro-ecological zones of origin. Two different phylogenetic groups were detected; revealing that some durum populations were more related to ssp. turgidum from northern Spain, while others seem to be more related to durum wheats from North Afric
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