Artificial municipal wastewater was treated successfully by the bioaugmentation of Bacillus sp. K5 capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) within a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). During the long-term operation, the bioaugmentation system exhibited an excellent and steady COD and NH4+-N removal without nitrite and nitrate accumulation. The average removal efficiency for COD and NH4+-N achieved to 98% and 95%, respectively. PCR-DGGE, SEM and FISH revealed that the introduced Bacillus sp. K5 should be an important functional strain and exerted a critical influence on the structure of microbial community. qPCR analysis indicated that the strain K5 facilitated aerobic nutrients removal capabilities and SND might be the primary pathway for the nitrogen removal in the SBR. Overall, the SBR system used in our study should be very promising for the future wastewater treatment
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