Grapevines Vitis vinifera L. ‘Shiraz’ were exposed to hydrogen fluoride in open-top chambers for 189 days at mean atmospheric fluoride concentrations of 0·27, 0·17 or 0·07 μgHFm−3. Grapevines growing under ambient conditions outside the chambers were exposed to a mean atmospheric fluoride concentration of 0·08 μgHFm−3. The maximum leaf fluoride concentrations associated with these treatments were 62, 27, 9 and 15 μFg−1, respectively. Foliar necrosis was first observed on grapevines exposed to 0·27 and 0·17 μgHFm−3 after 83 and 99 days, respectively. Exposure to fluoride increased the fluoride content of berries and peduncles, and reduced leaf chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll concentration at both mid-season and harvest. Exposure to 0·17 μgHFm−3 was associated with higher total acid content of grapes than other treatments. Fluoride had no significant effect on bunch weight, number of bunches, grape yield, grape water or potential alcohol content, leaf chlorophyll b or leaf protein concentration. The high accumulation of fluoride in peduncles, but low fluoride accumulation in berries, suggests that the peduncle acts to block the translocation of fluoride from sites of uptake to the fruit
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