Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Anion channel sensitivity to cytosolic organic acids implicates a central role for oxaloacetate in integrating ion flux with metabolism in stomatal guard cells

By Y. Wang and M.R. Blatt


Stomatal guard cells play a key role in gas exchange for photosynthesis and in minimizing transpirational water loss from plants by opening and closing the stomatal pore. The bulk of the osmotic content driving stomatal movements depends on ionic fluxes across both the plasma membrane and tonoplast, the metabolism of organic acids, primarily Mal (Imitate), and its accumulation and loss. Anion channels at the plasma membrane are thought to comprise a major pathway for Mal efflux during stomatal closure, implicating their key role in linking solute flux with metabolism. Nonetheless, little is known of the regulation of anion channel current (I(Cl)) by cytosolic Mal or its immediate metabolite OAA (oxaloacetate). In the present study, we have examined the impact of Mal, OAA and of the monocarboxylic acid anion acetate in guard cells of Vicia faba L. and report that all three organic acids affect I(Cl), but with markedly different characteristics and sidedness to their activities. Most prominent was a suppression of I(Cl) by OAA within the physiological range of concentrations found in vivo. These findings indicate a capacity for OAA to co-ordinate organic acid metabolism with I(Cl), through the direct effect of organic acid pool size. The findings of the present study also add perspective to in vivo recordings using acetate-based electrolytes

Publisher: Biochemical Society
Year: 2011
OAI identifier:
Provided by: Enlighten

Suggested articles


  1. (2002). A comparative study on diurnal changes in metabolite levels in the leaves of three crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species, Ananas comosus, Kalancho¨ e daigremontiana and K. pinnata.J .E x p .B o t .53,
  2. (1995). Acetate concentrations in leaves are sufficient to drive in vivo fatty-acid synthesis at maximum rates.
  3. (1997). Alteration of anion channel kinetics in wild-type and abi1-1 transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana guard cells by abscisic acid.
  4. (1963). An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters.
  5. (1994). Anion selectivity of slow anion channels in the plasma membrane of guard cells: large nitrate permeability.
  6. (2010). AtALMT12 represents an R-type anion channel required for stomatal movement in Arabidopsis guard cells.
  7. (1978). Availability of chloride affects balance between potassium chloride and potassium malate in guard cells of Vicia faba L. Plant Physiol.
  8. (1990). Ca2+ and nucleotide dependent regulation of voltage dependent anion channels in the plasma membrane of guard cells.
  9. (2000). Cellular signaling and volume control in stomatal movements in plants.
  10. (1996). Central roles for potassium and sucrose in guard cell osmoregulation.
  11. (2008). CO2 regulator SLAC1 and its homologues are essential for anion homeostasis in plant cells.
  12. (2004). Concepts and techniques in plant membrane physiology.
  13. (2010). Dynamic regulation of guard cell anion channels by cytosolic free Ca2+concentration and protein phosphorylation.
  14. (1987). Electrical characteristics of stomatal guard cells: the contribution of ATP-dependent, “electrogenic” transport revealed by current-voltage and difference-current-voltage analysis.
  15. (1987). Electrical characteristics of stomatal guard cells: the ionic basis of the membrane potential and the consequence of potassium chloride leakage from microelectrodes.
  16. (1996). GCAC1 recognizes the pH gradient across the plasma membrane: a pH-sensitive and ATP-dependent anion channel links guard cell membrane potential to acid and energy metabolism.
  17. (2010). Guard cell anion channel SLAC1 is regulated by CDPK protein kinases with distinct Ca2+ affinities.
  18. (2001). Guard cell signal transduction.
  19. (1993). Hormonal control of ion channel gating.
  20. (2005). In the light of stomatal opening: new insights into ‘the Watergate’. New Phytol.
  21. (2003). Integration of cellular and physiological functions of guard cells.
  22. (1997). Ion channels in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana (L) Heynh.
  23. (1992). K+ channels of stomatal guard cells: characteristics of the inward rectifier and its control by pH.
  24. (1983). KCl leakage from microelectrodes and its impact on the membrane parameters of a nonexcitable cell.
  25. (1985). Light activation of NADP-malate dehydrogenase in guard cell protoplasts from Vicia faba L. Plant Physiol.
  26. (2007). Light regulation of stomatal movement.
  27. (1994). Malate compartmentation: responses to a complex metabolism.
  28. (1977). Malate metabolism in isolated epidermis of Commelina communis L. in relation to stomatal functioning.
  29. (1993). Malate-induced feedback regulation of plasma membrane anion channels could provide a CO2 sensor to guard cells.
  30. (1998). Membrane voltage initiates Ca2+ waves and potentiates Ca2+ increases with abscisic acid in stomatal guard cells.
  31. (2007). Nitric oxide and plant ion channel control.
  32. (2003). Nitric oxide regulates K+ and Cl− channels in guard cells through a subset of abscisic acid-evoked signaling pathways.
  33. (1997). Parallel control of the inward-rectifier K+ channel by cytosolic-free Ca2+ and pH in Vicia guard cells.
  34. (1999). Potential strong regulation of guard cell phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase through phosphorylation.
  35. (1978). Presence of chloride reduces malate production in epidermis during stomatal opening.
  36. (2005). Protein phosphorylation is a prerequisite for intracellular Ca2+ release and ion channel control by nitric oxide and abscisic acid in guard cells.
  37. (1989). Quantitative analysis of outward rectifying K+ channel currents in guard cell protoplasts from Vicia faba.
  38. (2010). Quantitative dynamic systems modelling of guard cell membrane transport.
  39. (1991). Redox transfer across the inner chloroplast envelope membrane.
  40. (1978). Release of malate from epidermal strips during stomatal closure.
  41. (2002). Requirements for activation of the signal-transduction network that leads to regulatory phosphorylation of leaf guard-cell phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase during fusicoccin-stimulated stomatal opening.
  42. (1990). Reversible inactivation of K+ channels of Vicia stomatal guard cells following the photolysis of caged inositol
  43. (2000). Role of malate synthesis mediated by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in guard cells in the regulation of stomatal movement.
  44. (2007). Roles of ion channels and transporters in guard cell signal transduction.
  45. (2008). SLAC1 is required for plant guard cell S-type anion channel function in stomatal signalling.
  46. (1993). Sugar and organic acid accumulation in guard cells of Vicia faba in response to red and blue light.
  47. (2007). The Arabidopsis circadian clock incorporates a cADPR-based feedback loop.
  48. (1999). The effect of osmotic stress on the solutes in guard cells of Vicia faba L. Plant Cell Physiol.
  49. (2005). The plant clock shows its metal: circadian regulation of cytosolic free Ca2+.T r e n d sP l a n tS c i .10,
  50. (2003). The role of stomata in sensing and driving environmental change.
  51. (2003). The slow and the quick anion conductance in whole guard cells: their voltage-dependent alternation, and the modulation of their activities by abscisic acid and CO2.P l a n t a217,
  52. (1992). Two types of anion channel currents in guard cells with distinct voltage regulation.
  53. (1984). Ultrastructural and histochemical studies on guard cells.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.