Location of Repository

Geology of the Cenozoic Indus Basin sedimentary rocks : paleoenvironmental interpretation of sedimentation from the western Himalaya during the early phases of India-Eurasia collision.

By Alexandra L. Henderson, Yani Najman, Randall Parrish, Marcelle BouDagher‐Fadel, Dan Barford, Eduardo Garzanti and Sergio Andò

Abstract

This study reassesses the stratigraphy, sedimentology, and provenance of the Indus Basin sedimentary rocks, deposited within the Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ) during the early phases of India‐Eurasia collision. Using field observations, biostratigraphy, and petrographic and isotopic analyses we create a paleodepositional reconstruction within the paleotectonic setting of the early phases of India‐Eurasia collision. We then re‐examine existing constraints to the timing of India‐Eurasia collision previously interpreted from the earliest occurrence of mixed Indian‐ and Eurasian‐derived detritus in the succession. From mid‐Cretaceous to early Paleocene times the Jurutze and Sumda Formations were deposited within an arc‐bounded marine basin between the Dras and Kohistan‐Ladakh Island arcs. The <51 Ma aged deltaic Chogdo Formation then filled the basin until deposition of the 50.8–49.4 Ma aged Nummulitic Limestone during a marine incursion, before continental facies developed in an evolving intermountain basin with the deposition of the Paleogene Indus Group. Within these systems, sediment was sourced from the Eurasian margin to the north and was transported southward into the suture zone. In this section, we see no unequivocal evidence of Indian Plate input to the sedimentary succession (and thus no evidence of mixed Indian‐Eurasian‐derived detritus indicative of India‐Asia collision) until the upper stratigraphic horizons of the Indus Group, when facies are representative of an axial, northwesterly flowing river system. We suggest that the paleo‐Indus River was initiated within the ITSZ during late Oligocene‐early Miocene times. Sedimentation of the Indus Group continued until the late Miocene

Topics: QE Geology
Year: 2010
DOI identifier: 10.1029/2009TC002651
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.lancs.ac.uk:39868
Provided by: Lancaster E-Prints

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (2001a), Tracing patterns of erosion and drainage in the Paleogene Himalaya through ion probe Pb isotope analysis of detrital K‐ feldspars in the Indus molasse, doi
  2. (2001a), Tracing patterns of erosion and drainage in the Paleogene Himalaya through ion probe Pb isotope analysis of detrital K‐ feldspars in the Indus molasse, India, Earth Planet. doi
  3. (2001b), Development of the Indus Fan and its significance for the erosional history of the western Himalaya and Karakoram, doi
  4. (2002a), Constraints on India‐Eurasia collision in the Arabian Sea region taken from the Indus Group, Ladakh Himalaya, India, doi
  5. (2002a), Constraints on India‐Eurasia collision in the Arabian Sea region taken from the Indus Group, LadakhHimalaya,India,inTh eTe ct on i can dCl im at i c doi
  6. (2002a), Presence and geodynamic significance of Cambro‐Ordovician series doi
  7. (2002b), Nd and Pb isotope variability in the Indus River system: Implications for sediment provenance and crustal heterogeneity in the western Himalaya, Earth Planet. doi
  8. (2002b), The cretaceous Ladakh arc of NW Himalaya: Slab melting and melt‐mantle interaction during fast northward drift of Indian Plate, doi
  9. 1–11, doi:10.1007/ BF00387196. W a l k e r
  10. (2004). A Geologic Time Scale, 588 pp., doi
  11. (1996). A re‐evaluation of the stratigraphy and evolution of the Kohistan arc sequence, Pakistan Himalaya: Implications for magmatic and tectonic arc‐building processes, doi
  12. (2007). Age and isotopic constraints on magmatism along the Karakoram‐ Kohistan Suture Zone, NW Pakistan: Evidence for subduction and continued convergence after India‐ Asia collision, doi
  13. (1995). Age of metamorphism in the Lesser Himalaya and the main central thrust zone, Garhwal India: Results of illite crystallinity, 40Ar‐ 39Ar fusion and K‐Ar studies, doi
  14. (1995). Age of metamorphism in the Lesser Himalaya and the main central thrust zone, Garhwal India: Results of illite crystallinity, 40Ar‐39Ar fusion and K‐Ar studies, doi
  15. (1995). An objective assessment of analytical method precision: Comparison of ICP‐AES and XRF for the analysis of silicate rocks, doi
  16. and T.M.Harrison (1999),Geochronology and Thermochronology by the 40Ar/39Ar Method, doi
  17. (1995). Ar/ Ar‐ages of detrital micas and palaeogeographic provenance of Proterozoic clastic sediments in the Himalayas,
  18. C.J.,et al.(1984),Structureandevolutionof the Himalaya‐T i b e tO r o g e n i cb e l t ,Nature,
  19. (1983). Calc‐alkaline island arc volcanism in the Indus‐Tsangpo suture zone,
  20. (1991). Changing source regions of magmas and crustal growth in the trans‐Himalayas: Evidence from the Chalt volcanics and Kohistan batholith, Kohistan, doi
  21. (1991). Changing source regions of magmas and crustal growth in the trans‐Himalayas: Evidence from the Chalt volcanics and Kohistan batholith, Kohistan, northern Pakistan, Earth Planet. doi
  22. (1988). Collision tectonics of the Ladakh‐Zanskar Himalaya, in Tectonic Evolution of the Himalayas and Tibet,
  23. (1988). Collision tectonics of the Ladakh‐Zanskar Himalaya, in Tectonic Evolution of the Himalayas and Tibet,e d i t e db yR .M .S h a c k l e t o n
  24. Conaghan(1973),Plate tectonics and the Himalayas, doi
  25. (2002). Constraints on the exhumation and erosion of the High Himalayan Slab, NW India, from foreland basin deposits, Earth Planet. doi
  26. (2008). Cretaceous‐Tertiary carbonate platform evolution and the age of the India‐Asia collision along the Ladakh Himalaya (northwest doi
  27. (2001). Crustal reworking at Nanga Parbat, Pakistan: Metamorphic consequences of thermal‐mechanical coupling facilitated by erosion, doi
  28. (2000). Crustal shortening estimates across the north Indian continental margin, Ladakh, doi
  29. (2000). Crustal shortening estimates across the north Indian continental margin, Ladakh, NW India, doi
  30. (2000). Dating the Indian continental subduction and collisional thickening in the northwest Himalaya: Multichronology of the Tso Morari eclogites, doi
  31. (2009). Did the Kohistan‐Ladakh island arc collide first with India?, doi
  32. (1967). Die Bedeutung der Biotit‐alterswerte, in Rb‐Sr Altersbestimmungen an Glimmern der Zentralalpen,
  33. (1967). Die Bedeutung der Biotit‐alterswerte, in Rb‐Sr Altersbestimmungen an Glimmern der Zentralalpen, Beitr. Geol. Karte Schweiz,e d i t e d by
  34. (1994). Discovery of a crystalline basement and Early Ordovician marine transgression in the Karakorum mountain range, doi
  35. (2006). Downstream development of a detrital cooling‐age signal: Insights from 40Ar/ 39Ae muscovite thermochronology in the Nepalese Himalaya, in Tectonics, Climate and Landscape Evolution,e d i t e db yS .D .W i l l e t te ta l . doi
  36. (2006). Downstream development of a detrital cooling‐age signal: Insights from 40Ar/39Ae muscovite thermochronology in the Nepalese Himalaya, doi
  37. (1993). Eocene age of eclogite metamorphism in Pakistan Himalaya: Implications for India Eurasia collision, doi
  38. (1984). Etude Stratigraphique, Sedimentologique et Structurale d’un Bassin d’Avant Arc: Exemple du Bassin de l’Indus,
  39. (2008). Evolution and Geological Significance of Larger Benthic Foraminifera, 544 pp., Elsevier Sci., doi
  40. (1996). Evolution of the Himalaya, in The Tectonic Evolution of Asia, doi
  41. (2003). Exhumation history of eastern Ladakh revealed by 40Ar/ 39Ar and fission‐track ages: The Indus River‐Tso Morari transect, doi
  42. (2003). Exhumation history of eastern Ladakh revealed by 40Ar/39Ar and fission‐track ages: The Indus River‐Tso Morari transect, doi
  43. (2003). Exhumation of early Tertiary, coesite‐bearing eclogites from the Pakistan Himalaya, doi
  44. (1996). Fast, simple method of powder pellet preparation for X‐ray fluorescence analysis, doi
  45. (2000). Formation of melanges in the Indus Suture Zone, Ladakh Himalaya by successive subduction‐related, collisional and post‐ collisional processes during Late Mesozoic‐Late Tertiary time, doi
  46. (1977). Geological observations in the Ladakh area (Himalaya): A preliminary report,
  47. (1980). Geology of Kumaun Lesser Himalaya, 291 pp., Wadia Inst. Himalayan Geol.,
  48. (2000). Growth and deformation of the Ladakh batholith, northwest Himalayas: Implications for timing of continental collision and origin of calc‐alkaline batholiths, doi
  49. (2005). Himalayan architecture constrained by isotopic tracers from clastic sediments, doi
  50. (1993). Hydrology and geomorphology of the Indus River in Sindh: Implications f o rt h eM o h e nj oD a r os i t e ,i nHimalayas to the Sea: Geology, Geomorphology and the Quaternary, edited by
  51. (1993). Hydrology and geomorphology of the Indus River in Sindh: Implications for the Mohen jo Daro site, doi
  52. (2004). Indus‐Zanskar‐Pangong,
  53. (2003). Initiation of the Himalayan orogen as an Early Paleozoic thin‐skinned thrust belt, doi
  54. (2007). Insights into the patterns and locations of erosion in the Himalaya: A combined fission track and in situ Sm‐Nd isotopic study of detrital apatite, doi
  55. (2007). Insights into the patterns and locations of erosion in the Himalaya: Ac o m b i n e df i s s i o nt r a c ka n di ns i t uS m ‐Nd isotopic study of detritalapatite,
  56. (2003). Integrated tectonostratigraphic analysis of the Himalaya and implications tor its tectonic reconstruction, doi
  57. (1998). Intercalibration of standards, absolute ages and uncertainties in 40Ar/ 39Ar dating, doi
  58. (1998). Intercalibration of standards, absolute ages and uncertainties in 40Ar/39Ar dating, doi
  59. (1985). Interpreting provenance relations from detrital modes of sandstones, doi
  60. (1996). Isotopic constraints on the age and provenance of the Lesser and Greater Himalayan sequences, doi
  61. (1993). Jurassic and Cretaceous orogenic events in the north Karakoram: Age constraints from sedimentary rocks, doi
  62. (1989). K‐Ar ages of ophiolites and arc volcanics of the Indus Suture Zone: Clues on early evolution of the Neo‐Tethys, Eclogae Geol.
  63. (1989). K‐Ar and Ar‐Ar geochronology of the Himalayan collision in NW Pakistan: Constraints on the timing of suturing, deformation, metamorphism and uplift, doi
  64. (1995). Late Neogene chronology: New perspectives in high‐resolution stratigraphy, doi
  65. (1982). Le contact Gondwana‐peri Gondwana dans le Zanskar oriental
  66. (1990). Les formations de la marge nord‐ Neotethsieene et les melanges ophiolitic de la zone de suture de l’Indus enHimalaya du Ladakh, Ph.D. thesis, 295 pp., L’Universite de Poiters,
  67. (1990). Les formations de la marge nord‐ Neotethsieene et les melanges ophiolitic de la zone desuture de l’Indus enHimalayadu Ladakh, Ph.D. thesis, 295 pp., L’Universite de Poiters,
  68. (1982). Magmatism and metamorphism in the Ladakh Himalayas (the Indus‐ Tsangpo Suture Zone), doi
  69. (1985). Magmatism and metamorphism in the Lhasa Block (Tibet): A geochronological study, doi
  70. (1989). Metamorphism and crustal stacking in the North Indian Plate, doi
  71. (1999). Metamorphism, melting, and extension: Age constraints from the High Himalayan Slab of southeast Zanskar and northwest Lahaul, doi
  72. (2000). Middle Cretaceous back‐arc formation and arc evolution along the Asian margin: doi
  73. (1982). Middle Paleozoic to Cenozoic geology and tectonic evolution of the northwestern doi
  74. (1991). Multicyclic history of the northern India continental‐margin (northwestern Himalaya), doi
  75. (2002). Multiple mantle sources during island arc magmatism: U‐Pb and Hf isotopic evidence from the Kohistan arc complex, doi
  76. (2002). New constraints on the India‐Asia collision: The Lower Miocene Gangrinboche conglomerates, Yarlung Tsangpo suture zone, doi
  77. (1979). On the geology of western Ladakh,
  78. (1964). On the upper tertiary deposits of Ladakh Himalayas and correlation of various geotectonic units of Ladakh with those of the Kumaon‐Tibet region,
  79. (2007). Orogenic belts and orogenic sediment provenance, doi
  80. (1981). Outline of the geology of the Himalaya,
  81. (1973). Plate tectonics and the Himalayas, Earth Planet. doi
  82. (1993). Precambrian and Lower Cambrian stromatolites of the Lesser Himalaya,
  83. (1992). Pressure, temperature and time constraints on Himalayan metamorphism from eastern Kashmir and western Zanskar, doi
  84. (2000). Proterozoic crustal evolution in the NW Himalaya (India) as recorded by circa 1.80 Ga mafic and 1.84 Ga granitic magmatism, doi
  85. (1985). Rb‐Sr dating of the Kohistan arc‐batholith in the trans‐ Himalaya of north Pakistan, and tectonic implications, doi
  86. (2000). Reconstructing early Himalayan tectonic evolution and paleogeography from Tertiary foreland basin sedimentary rocks, doi
  87. (2000). Reconstructing early Himalayan tectonic evolution and paleogeography from Tertiary foreland basin sedimentary rocks, northern India, doi
  88. (1981). Regional framework and geodynamic evolution of the Indus‐Tsangpo Suture Zone, doi
  89. (2006). Relicts of an intra‐oceanic arc in the Sapi‐Shergol melange zone (Ladakh, NW Himalaya, India): Implications for the closure of the Neo‐Tethys Ocean, doi
  90. (1990). Restoration and evolution of the intermontane Indus molasse basin, doi
  91. (1987). Sedimentary record of the northward flight of India and its collision with
  92. (1987). Sedimentary record of the northward flight of India and its collision with Eurasia (Ladakh Himalaya,
  93. (2001). Sedimentology of the Indus group, Ladakh, northern India: Implications for the timing of initiation of the palaeo‐Indus River, doi
  94. (1984). Sedimentology, petrography and tectonic significance of the shelf, flysch and molasse clastic deposits across the Indus Suture Zone, Ladakh, doi
  95. (1997). Shisha Pangma leucogranite, south Tibetan Himalaya: Field relations, geochemistry, age, origin, and emplacement, doi
  96. (2002). Shyok Suture Zone, N Pakistan: Late Mesozoic‐Tertiary evolution of a critical suture separating the oceanic Ladakh Arc from the Asian continental margin, doi
  97. (1997). Significant crustal shortening in south‐central Tibet prior to the Indo‐Asia collision,
  98. (1984). Structure and evolution of the Himalaya‐Tibet Orogenic belt, doi
  99. (1997). Structure of the north Indian continental margin in the Ladakh‐Zanskar Himalayas: Implications for the timing of obduction of the Spontang ophiolite, India‐Asia collision and deformation events in the Himalaya, doi
  100. (1979). Suczek
  101. (1999). Tectonic and Metamorphic Evolution of the Central Himalayan Domain
  102. (1999). Tectonic and Metamorphic Evolution of the Central Himalayan Domain in Southeast Zanskar (Kashmir,
  103. (2006). Tectonic evolution of the Himalaya constrained by detrital Ar‐40‐Ar‐39, Sm‐Nd and petrographic data from the Siwalik foreland basin succession, doi
  104. (2000). Tectonic implications of U‐Pb zircon ages of the Himalayan orogenic belt in doi
  105. (2001). Tectonic setting, origin, and obduction history of the Spontang ophiolite, doi
  106. (1996). Tectonometamorphic evolution of the Himalayan metamorphic core between Annapurna and Dhaulagiri, central doi
  107. (2010). Testing the application of in situ Sm‐Nd isotopic analysis on detrital apatites: A provenance tool for constraining the timing of India‐Eurasia collision, doi
  108. (2009). The ARGUS multicollector noble gas mass spectrometer: Performance for 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology, doi
  109. (2009). The ARGUS multicollector noble gas mass spectrometer: Performance for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, doi
  110. (1989). The blueschists along the Indus Suture Zone in Ladakh, doi
  111. (2006). The detrital record of orogenesis: A review of approaches and techniques used in the Himalayan sedimentary basins, doi
  112. (1994). The Dras arc complex: Lithofacies and reconstruction of a Late Cretaceous oceanic volcanic arc in the Indus Suture Zone, doi
  113. (1989). The Dras arc: Two successive volcanic events on eroded oceanic crust, doi
  114. (1984). The effect of grain‐size on detrital modes: A test of the Gazzi‐Dickinson point‐counting method, doi
  115. (1977). The great suture zone between Himalaya and Tibet, a preliminary account,
  116. (1988). The Indus clastics: Fore‐arc basin sedimentation in the Ladakh Himalaya (India), doi
  117. (1997). The Karakorum Block in central Asia, from Ordovician to Cretaceous, doi
  118. (2005). The onset of India‐Asia continental collision: Early, steep subduction required by the timing of UHP metamorphism in the western Himalaya, Earth Planet. doi
  119. (2008). The Paleogene record of Himalayan erosion: doi
  120. (2008). The Paleogene record of Himalayan erosion: Bengal Basin, Bangladesh, Earth P l a n e t .S c i .L e t t . doi
  121. (2007). The Takena Formation of the Lhasa terrane, southern Tibet: The record of a Late Cretaceous retroarc foreland basin, doi
  122. (1999). The tectonic evolution of the Kohistan‐Karakoram collision belt along the Karakoram Highway transect, doi
  123. (1999). The tectonic evolution of the Kohistan‐Karakoram collision belt along the Karakoram Highway transect, north doi
  124. (1993). The tectonic evolution of the north western Himalaya in eastern Ladakh and Lahul, India, doi
  125. (1999). The thermochronology of the high Himalayan crystallines in the Garhwal Himalaya: Prograde history of a polymetamorphic slab,
  126. (2000). The Zedong window: A record of superposed Tertiary convergence in southeastern Tibet, doi
  127. (1989). Time calibration of a PT‐ path from the Western Tauern Window, Eastern Alps: The problem of closure temperatures, doi
  128. (1999). Timing of prograde metamorphism in the Zanskar Himalaya, doi
  129. (2000). Two episodes of monazite crystallization during metamorphism and crustal melting in the Everest region of the Nepalese Himalaya, doi
  130. (1984). U‐Pb geochronology of Gangdese (Transhimalaya) plutonism in the Lhasa‐ Xigaze region, doi
  131. (2007). Zircon Hf isotopic constraints on the sources of the Indus molasse, doi
  132. (2008). Zircon SHRIMP U‐Pb ages of the Gangdese Batholith and implications for Neotethyan subduction in southern Tibet, doi
  133. (2006). Zircon U‐Pb and Hf isotope constraints on the Mesozoic tectonics and crustal evolution of southern Tibet, doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.