Growth arrest and DNA damage protein 34 (GADD34) is a multifunctional protein upregulated in response to cellular stress and is believed to mediate DNA repair and restore protein synthesis. In the present study we have examined GADD34 immunoreactivity in human myocardial tissue at defined survival times following cardiac arrest and determined alterations in expression following ischaemia. In the normal human heart, GADD34 immunoreactivity was generally intense and present within most cells. GADD34 immunoreactivity was downregulated in tissue displaying ischaemic damage and remained intense in adjacent non-infarcted tissue. Unlike brain, GADD34 was not found to be upregulated in the peri-infarct zone. Cells displaying apoptotic changes were located in regions displaying reduced GADD34 immunoreactivity. In the brain, it is thought that GADD34 supports re-initiation of protein synthesis following ischaemia. Similarly, GADD34 may perform important functions in cardiac tissue in response to ischaemia
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