This dissertation attempts to reevaluate the obsidian hydration method by applying new criteria and sample suitability criteria. During this research study, new methods and procedures were been developed and added to the main dating methodology. These procedures are leading to more accurate age calculation of the archaeological artifact. Also a variety of methods for surface and interface analysis were used, such as SEM, AFM, Dynamic-SIMS, ToF-SIMS. The results from the surface examination lead to the development of new criteria for the selection of samples. The application of these criteria is recommended to every user/scientist of obsidian hydration dating in order to determine which samples are usable and if the acquired ages are correct.