New Attenuation Marker for Junin Virus Based on Immunologic Responses of Guinea Pigs


A new attenuation marker to distinguish a virulent strain (XJJV) from an attenuated strain (XJCI3JV or XJOJV) of Junin virus by means of the humoral and cellular responses to unrelated antigens was studied in guinea pigs. Strain XJJV suppressed the humoral immune response, as shown by the lower titers of precipitating antibody to ovalbumin. The concomitant decrease in serum complement level contributed to a milder Arthus cutaneous reactivity. In contrast, the attenuated strains did not decrease the humoral response. The pathogenic strain suppressed cell-mediated immunity, as demonstrated by decreased contact sensitivity to 2,4-dinitro-I-fluorobenzene and by depression of delayed skin reactions to tuberculin purified protein derivative. When at-tenuated strains were used, such suppressive effects were not observed. For virulent strain XJJV, virus replication in lymphoid organs and immunosuppressive effects were correlated. These findings provide a further means to differentiate between virulent and attenuated strains of Junin virus for the purpose of vaccine control of Argentine hemor-rhagic fever. For many years live, attenuated virus vaccine

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