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Mastery: The Essential ~ssential in PSI

By E. C. Caldwell, K. Bissonnettee, M. J. Klishis and M. Ripley


Four studies were conducted i n order to clarify the importance of student proctors and mastery performance in PSI systems. In his now classic article "Goodbye Teacher " Keller (1968) lists five essentials for a Personalized System of Instruction (PSI): 1) go at your own pace; 2) unit perfection; 3) lectures and demonstrations as motivation; 4) emphasis on the written word; and 5) use of student proctors. Reviews of studies in a variety of disciplines (Johnson & Ruskin, Note 1; Kulik, Kulik & Carmichael, 1974; Ryan, 1974) leave little doubt that students in a PSI type approach perform consid-erably better on achievement measures than do traditional-instruction control students. Although there is a growing body of research concerning each of Keller's five essentials (Johnson & Ruskin, Note I) , the evidence regarding the contribution of each to a successful educational system is grossly deficient. The four studies presented here were designed to investigate the contribution of two of Keller's five essentials, mastery (unit perfection) and the use of student proctors

Year: 2016
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