Normally, vehicles queued at an intersection reach maximum flow rate after the fourth vehicle and results in a start-up lost time. This research demonstrated that the Enlarged Stopping Distance (ESD) concept could assist in reducing the start-up time and therefore increase traffic flow capacity at signalised intersections. In essence ESD gives sufficient space for a queuing vehicle to accelerate simultaneously without having to wait for the front vehicle to depart, hence reducing start-up lost time. In practice, the ESD concept would be most effective when enlarged stopping distance between the first and second vehicle allowing faster clearance of the intersection
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