Location of Repository

Tackling the health burden from household air pollution (HAP) : development and implementation of new WHO Guidelines

By Nigel Bruce, Carlos Dora, Michal Krzyzanowski, Heather Adair-Rohani, Tenzin Wangchuk and Lidia Morawska

Abstract

Household air pollution (HAP), arising mainly from the combustion of solid and other polluting fuels, is responsible for a very substantial public health burden, most recently estimated as causing 3.5 million premature deaths in 2010. These patterns of household fuel use have also important negative impacts on safety, prospects for poverty reduction and the environment, including climate change. Building on previous air quality guidelines, the WHO is developing new guidelines focused on household fuel combustion, covering cooking, heating and lighting, and although global, the key focus is low and middle income countries reflecting the distribution of disease burden. As discussed in this paper, currently in development, the guidelines will include reviews of a wide range of evidence including fuel use in homes, emissions from stoves and lighting, household air pollution and exposure levels experienced by populations, health risks, impacts of interventions on HAP and exposure, and also key factors influencing sustainable and equitable adoption of improved stoves and cleaner fuels. GRADE, the standard method used for guidelines evidence review may not be well suited to the variety and nature of evidence required for this project, and a modified approach is being developed and tested. Work on the guidelines is being carried out in close collaboration with the UN Foundation Global Alliance on Clean cookstoves, allowing alignment with specific tools including recently developed international voluntary standards for stoves, and the development of country action plans. Following publication, WHO plans to work closely with a number of countries to learn from implementation efforts, in order to further strengthen support and guidance. A case study on the situation and policy actions to date in Bhutan provide an illustration of the challenges and opportunities involved, and the timely importance of the new guidelines and associated research, evaluation and policy development agendas

Topics: 040100 ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 050206 Environmental Monitoring, 099999 Engineering not elsewhere classified, 119900 OTHER MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES, Household air pollution, Air quality guidelines, Household fuel combustion, Exposure to household air pollution, Health risk from air pollution, household air pollution in Bhutan
Publisher: Clean Air Society of Australia and New Zealand
Year: 2013
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.qut.edu.au:58645

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (2012). A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study
  2. (2007). Annual Health Bulletin (AHB)
  3. (2005). Bhutan Energy Data Directory
  4. (2010). Bhutan Land Cover Assessment
  5. (2011). Clean gas stoves to replace traditional hearths,
  6. (2007). Environmental Tobacco Smoke, Woodstove Heating and Risk of Asthma Symptoms,
  7. (2012). Exposure, Population using solid fuels (reported data) 2010, from http://apps.who.int/ghodata/.
  8. (2009). Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva, World Health Organisation.
  9. (2011). GRADE guidelines: 3. Rating the quality of evidence,
  10. (2011). HEI Health Review Committee,
  11. (2006). Indoor Air Pollution, Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries
  12. (2012). Kerosene: A Review of Household Uses and their Hazards in Low- and Middle-Income Countries."
  13. (2011). Modeling indoor air pollution from cookstove emissions in developing countries using a Monte Carlo single-box model,
  14. (2006). Modelling PM10 concentrations and carrying capacity associated with woodheater emissions in
  15. (2010). Modifying the GRADE framework could benefit public health,
  16. (2009). Overview of Energy Policy of Bhutan. Thimphu,
  17. (1994). Paraffin poisoning: partnership is the key to prevention,
  18. (2010). The GRADE approach and Bradford Hill's criteria for causation,
  19. (2006). The Population and Housing Census of Bhutan-2005, Thimphu,
  20. (2012). Up in smoke: the influence of household behavior on the long-run impact of improved cooking stoves.
  21. (2005). WHO Air quality guidelines global update 2005. Copenhagen, World Health Organisation.
  22. (2009). WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: dampness and mould. Bonn, World Health Organisation.
  23. (2010). WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: selected pollutants. Bonn, World Health Organisation.
  24. (2004). Working with rural communities to conserve wood energy: A case study from Bhutan. Energy for Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific Region: Challenges and Lessons
  25. (2011). World Energy Outlook.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.