Prostate cancer (CaP) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in North American males and the most common newly diagnosed cancer in men world wide. Biomarkers are widely used for both early detection and prognostic tests for cancer. The current, commonly used biomarker for CaP is serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). However, the specificity of this biomarker is low as its serum level is not only increased in CaP but also in various other diseases, with age and even body mass index. Human body fluids provide an excellent resource for the discovery of biomarkers, with the advantage over tissue/biopsy samples of their ease of access, due to the less invasive nature of collection. However, their analysis presents challenges in terms of variability and validation. Blood and urine are two human body fluids commonly used for CaP research, but their proteomic analyses are limited both by the large dynamic range of protein abundance making detection of low abundance proteins difficult and in the case of urine, by the high salt concentration. To overcome these challenges, different techniques for removal of high abundance proteins and enrichment of low abundance proteins are used. Their applications and limitations are discussed in this review. A number of innovative proteomic techniques have improved detection of biomarkers. They include two dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) and functional proteomic studies, i.e., investigating the association of post translational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation, glycosylation and protein degradation. The recent development of quantitative MS techniques such as stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) have allowed proteomic researchers to quantitatively compare data from different samples. 2D-DIGE has greatly improved the statistical power of classical 2D gel analysis by introducing an internal control. This chapter aims to review novel CaP biomarkers as well as to discuss current trends in biomarker research from two angles: the source of biomarkers (particularly human body fluids such as blood and urine), and emerging proteomic approaches for biomarker research
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