This study undertook a physico-chemical characterisation of particle emissions from a single compression ignition engine operated at one test mode with 3 biodiesel fuels made from 3 different feedstocks (i.e. soy, tallow and canola) at 4 different blend percentages (20%, 40%, 60% and 80%) to gain insights into their particle-related health effects. Particle physical properties were inferred by measuring particle number size distributions both with and without heating within a thermodenuder (TD) and also by measuring particulate matter (PM) emission factors with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10). The chemical properties of particulates were investigated by measuring particle and vapour phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and also Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) concentrations. The particle number size distributions showed strong dependency on feedstock and blend percentage with some fuel types showing increased particle number emissions, whilst others showed particle number reductions. In addition, the median particle diameter decreased as the blend percentage was increased. Particle and vapour phase PAHs were generally reduced with biodiesel, with the results being relatively independent of the blend percentage. The ROS concentrations increased monotonically with biodiesel blend percentage, but did not exhibit strong feedstock variability. Furthermore, the ROS concentrations correlated quite well with the organic volume percentage of particles – a quantity which increased with increasing blend percentage. At higher blend percentages, the particle surface area was significantly reduced, but the particles were internally mixed with a greater organic volume percentage (containing ROS) which has implications for using surface area as a regulatory metric for diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions
To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.