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The Queensland University of Technology (QUT) allows the presentation of a thesis for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the format of published or submitted papers, where such papers have been published, accepted or submitted during the period of candidature. This thesis is composed of seven published/submitted papers, of which one has been published, three accepted for publication and the other three are under review. This project is financially supported by an Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Grant with the aim of proposing strategies for the performance control of Distributed Generation (DG) system with digital estimation of power system signal parameters.\ud Distributed Generation (DG) has been recently introduced as a new concept for the generation of power and the enhancement of conventionally produced electricity. Global warming issue calls for renewable energy resources in electricity production. Distributed generation based on solar energy (photovoltaic and solar thermal), wind, biomass, mini-hydro along with use of fuel cell and micro turbine will gain substantial momentum in the near future. Technically, DG can be a viable solution for the issue of the integration of renewable or non-conventional energy resources. Basically, DG sources can be connected to local power system through power electronic devices, i.e. inverters or ac-ac converters. The interconnection of DG systems to power system as a compensator or a power source with high quality performance is the main aim of this study. Source and load unbalance, load non-linearity, interharmonic distortion, supply voltage distortion, distortion at the point of common coupling in weak source cases, source current power factor, and synchronism of generated currents or voltages are the issues of concern.\ud The interconnection of DG sources shall be carried out by using power electronics switching devices that inject high frequency components rather than the desired current. Also, noise and harmonic distortions can impact the performance of the control strategies. To be able to mitigate the negative effect of high frequency and harmonic as well as noise distortion to achieve satisfactory performance of DG systems, new methods of signal parameter estimation have been proposed in this thesis. These methods are based on processing the digital samples of power system signals. Thus, proposing advanced techniques for the digital estimation of signal parameters and methods for the generation of DG reference currents using the estimates provided is the targeted scope of this thesis. An introduction to this research – including a description of the research problem, the literature review and an account of the research progress linking the research papers – is presented in Chapter 1.\ud One of the main parameters of a power system signal is its frequency. Phasor Measurement (PM) technique is one of the renowned and advanced techniques used for the estimation of power system frequency. Chapter 2 focuses on an in-depth analysis conducted on the PM technique to reveal its strengths and drawbacks. The analysis will be followed by a new technique proposed to enhance the speed of the PM technique while the input signal is free of even-order harmonics. The other techniques proposed in this thesis as the novel ones will be compared with the PM technique comprehensively studied in Chapter 2.\ud An algorithm based on the concept of Kalman filtering is proposed in Chapter 3. The algorithm is intended to estimate signal parameters like amplitude, frequency and phase angle in the online mode. The Kalman filter is modified to operate on the output signal of a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter designed by a plain summation. The frequency estimation unit is independent from the Kalman filter and uses the samples refined by the FIR filter. The frequency estimated is given to the Kalman filter to be used in building the transition matrices. The initial settings for the modified Kalman filter are obtained through a trial and error exercise.\ud Another algorithm again based on the concept of Kalman filtering is proposed in Chapter 4 for the estimation of signal parameters. The Kalman filter is also modified to operate on the output signal of the same FIR filter explained above. Nevertheless, the frequency estimation unit, unlike the one proposed in Chapter 3, is not segregated and it interacts with the Kalman filter. The frequency estimated is given to the Kalman filter and other parameters such as the amplitudes and phase angles estimated by the Kalman filter is taken to the frequency estimation unit.\ud Chapter 5 proposes another algorithm based on the concept of Kalman filtering. This time, the state parameters are obtained through matrix arrangements where the noise level is reduced on the sample vector. The purified state vector is used to obtain a new measurement vector for a basic Kalman filter applied. The Kalman filter used has similar structure to a basic Kalman filter except the initial settings are computed through an extensive math-work with regards to the matrix arrangement utilized.\ud Chapter 6 proposes another algorithm based on the concept of Kalman filtering similar to that of Chapter 3. However, this time the initial settings required for the better performance of the modified Kalman filter are calculated instead of being guessed by trial and error exercises. The simulations results for the parameters of signal estimated are enhanced due to the correct settings applied. Moreover, an enhanced Least Error Square (LES) technique is proposed to take on the estimation when a critical transient is detected in the input signal. In fact, some large, sudden changes in the parameters of the signal at these critical transients are not very well tracked by Kalman filtering. However, the proposed LES technique is found to be much faster in tracking these changes. Therefore, an appropriate combination of the LES and modified Kalman filtering is proposed in Chapter 6. Also, this time the ability of the proposed algorithm is verified on the real data obtained from a prototype test object.\ud Chapter 7 proposes the other algorithm based on the concept of Kalman filtering similar to those of Chapter 3 and 6. However, this time an optimal digital filter is designed instead of the simple summation FIR filter. New initial settings for the modified Kalman filter are calculated based on the coefficients of the digital filter applied. Also, the ability of the proposed algorithm is verified on the real data obtained from a prototype test object. \ud Chapter 8 uses the estimation algorithm proposed in Chapter 7 for the interconnection scheme of a DG to power network. Robust estimates of the signal amplitudes and phase angles obtained by the estimation approach are used in the reference generation of the compensation scheme. Several simulation tests provided in this chapter show that the proposed scheme can very well handle the source and load unbalance, load non-linearity, interharmonic distortion, supply voltage distortion, and synchronism of generated currents or voltages. The purposed compensation scheme also prevents distortion in voltage at the point of common coupling in weak source cases, balances the source currents, and makes the supply side power factor a desired value

Topics:
amplitude estimation, DG interconnection, digital estimation, digital filter, distributed generation, FIR filter, frequency estimation, harmonics, high frequency distortion, hysteresis current control, interconnection of distributed generation, interharmonics, Kalman filtering, least error square, load compensation, load unbalance, microgrids, moving average filter, noise, nonlinear load, phase angle estimation, phasor measurement, power electronics, power system, remote load, renewable energy sources, signal measurement, source unbalance, voltage distortion, voltage source converters, weak AC source, zero crossing

Publisher: Queensland University of Technology

Year: 2010

OAI identifier:
oai:eprints.qut.edu.au:47011

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Queensland University of Technology ePrints Archive

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