Currently, well-established clinical therapeutic approaches for bone reconstruction are restricted to the transplantation of autografts and allografts, and the implantation of metal devices or ceramic-based implants to assist bone regeneration. Bone grafts possess osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties, however they are limited in access and availability and associated with donor site morbidity, haemorrhage, risk of infection, insufficient transplant integration, graft devitalisation, and subsequent resorption resulting in decreased mechanical stability. As a result, recent research focuses on the development of alternative therapeutic concepts. Analysing the tissue engineering literature it can be concluded that bone regeneration has become a focus area in the field. Hence, a considerable number of research groups and commercial entities work on the development of tissue engineered constructs for bone regeneration. However, bench to bedside translations are still infrequent as the process towards approval by regulatory bodies is protracted and costly, requiring both comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies. In translational orthopaedic research, the utilisation of large preclinical animal models is a conditio sine qua non. Consequently, to allow comparison between different studies and their outcomes, it is essential that animal models, fixation devices, surgical procedures and methods of taking measurements are well standardized to produce reliable data pools as a base for further research directions. The following chapter reviews animal models of the weight-bearing lower extremity utilized in the field which include representations of fracture-healing, segmental bone defects, and fracture non-unions
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