The field of literacy studies has always been challenged by the changing technologies that\ud humans have used to express, represent and communicate their feelings, ideas,\ud understandings and knowledge. However, while the written word has remained central to\ud literacy processes over a long period, it is generally accepted that there have been significant\ud changes to what constitutes ‘literate’ practice. In particular, the status of the printed word has\ud been challenged by the increasing dominance of the image, along with the multimodal\ud meaning-making systems facilitated by digital media. For example, Gunther Kress and other\ud members of the New London Group have argued that the second half of the twentieth century\ud saw a significant cultural shift from the linguistic to the visual as the dominant semiotic\ud mode. This in turn, they suggest, was accompanied by a cultural shift ‘from page to screen’\ud as a dominant space of representation (e.g. Cope & Kalantzis, 2000; Kress, 2003; New\ud London Group, 1996). In a similar vein, Bill Green has noted that we have witnessed a shift\ud from the regime of the print apparatus to a regime of the digital electronic apparatus\ud (Lankshear, Snyder and Green, 2000). For these reasons, the field of literacy education has\ud been challenged to find new ways to conceptualise what is meant by ‘literacy’ in the twenty first\ud century and to rethink the conditions under which children might best be taught to be\ud fully literate so that they can operate with agency in today’s world
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