Research investigating the transactional approach to the work stressor-employee adjustment relationship has described many negative main effects between perceived stressors in the workplace and employee outcomes. A considerable amount of literature, theoretical and empirical, also describes potential moderators of this relationship. Organizational identification has been established as a significant predictor of employee job-related attitudes. To date, research has neglected investigation of the potential moderating effect of organizational identification in the work stressor-employee adjustment relationship. On the basis of identity, subjective fit and sense of belonging literature it was predicted that higher perceptions of identification at multiple levels of the organization would mitigate the negative effect of work stressors on employee adjustment. It was expected, further, that more proximal, lower order identifications would be more prevalent and potent as buffers of stressors on strain. Predictions were tested with an employee sample from five organizations (N = 267). Hierarchical moderated multiple regression analyses revealed some support for the stress-buffering effects of identification in the prediction of job satisfaction and organizational commitment, particularly for more proximal (i.e., work unit) identification. These positive stress-buffering effects, however, were present for low identifiers in some situations. The present study represents an extension of the application of organizational identity theory by identifying the effects of organizational and workgroup identification on employee outcomes in the nonprofit context. Our findings will contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics in nonprofit organizations and therefore contribute to the development of strategy and interventions to deal with identity-based issues in nonprofits
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