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Effect of pedestrian movement on MIMO-OFDM channel capacity in an indoor environment

By Jishu Das Gupta


The rapid growth of mobile telephone use, satellite services, and now the wireless Internet and WLANs are generating tremendous changes in telecommunication and networking. As indoor wireless communications become more prevalent, modeling indoor radio wave propagation in populated environments is a topic of significant interest. Wireless MIMO communication exploits phenomena such as multipath propagation to increase data throughput and range, or reduce bit error rates, rather than attempting to eliminate effects of multipath propagation as traditional SISO communication systems seek to do. The MIMO approach can yield significant gains for both link and network capacities, with no additional transmitting power or bandwidth consumption when compared to conventional single-array diversity methods. When MIMO and OFDM systems are combined and deployed in a suitable rich scattering environment such as indoors, a significant capacity gain can be observed due to the assurance of multipath propagation. Channel variations can occur as a result of movement of personnel, industrial machinery, vehicles and other equipment moving within the indoor environment. The time-varying effects on the propagation channel in populated indoor environments depend on the different pedestrian traffic conditions and the particular type of environment considered. A systematic measurement campaign to study pedestrian movement effects in indoor MIMO-OFDM channels has not yet been fully undertaken. Measuring channel variations caused by the relative positioning of pedestrians is essential in the study of indoor MIMO-OFDM broadband wireless networks. Theoretically, due to high multipath scattering, an increase in MIMO-OFDM channel capacity is expected when pedestrians are present. However, measurements indicate that some reductions in channel capacity could be observed as the number of pedestrians approaches 10 due to a reduction in multipath conditions as more human bodies absorb the wireless signals. This dissertation presents a systematic characterization of the effects of pedestrians in indoor MIMO-OFDM channels. Measurement results, using the MIMO-OFDM channel sounder developed at the CSIRO ICT Centre, have been validated by a customized Geometric Optics-based ray tracing simulation. Based on measured and simulated MIMO-OFDM channel capacity and MIMO-OFDM capacity dynamic range, an improved deterministic model for MIMO-OFDM channels in indoor populated environments is presented. The model can be used for the design and analysis of future WLAN to be deployed in indoor environments. The results obtained show that, in both Fixed SNR and Fixed Tx for deterministic condition, the channel capacity dynamic range rose with the number of pedestrians as well as with the number of antenna combinations. In random scenarios with 10 pedestrians, an increment in channel capacity of up to 0.89 bits/sec/Hz in Fixed SNR and up to 1.52 bits/sec/Hz in Fixed Tx has been recorded compared to the one pedestrian scenario. In addition, from the results a maximum increase in average channel capacity of 49% has been measured while 4 antenna elements are used, compared with 2 antenna elements. The highest measured average capacity, 11.75 bits/sec/Hz, corresponds to the 4x4 array with 10 pedestrians moving randomly. Moreover, Additionally, the spread between the highest and lowest value of the the dynamic range is larger for Fixed Tx, predicted 5.5 bits/sec/Hz and measured 1.5 bits/sec/Hz, in comparison with Fixed SNR criteria, predicted 1.5 bits/sec/Hz and measured 0.7 bits/sec/Hz. This has been confirmed by both measurements and simulations ranging from 1 to 5, 7 and 10 pedestrians

Topics: MIMO-OFDM, wireless communications, indoor wireless transmissions
Publisher: Queensland University of Technology
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.qut.edu.au:38632

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