*This article is free to read on the publisher's website*\ud \ud Developmental progression and differentiation of distinct cell types depend on the regulation of gene expression in space and time. Tools that allow spatial and temporal control of gene expression are crucial for the accurate elucidation of gene function. Most systems to manipulate gene expression allow control of only one factor, space or time, and currently available systems that control both temporal and spatial expression of genes have their limitations. We have developed a versatile two-component system that overcomes these limitations, providing reliable, conditional gene activation in restricted tissues or cell types. This system allows conditional tissue-specific ectopic gene expression and provides a tool for conditional cell type- or tissue-specific complementation of mutants. The chimeric transcription factor XVE, in conjunction with Gateway recombination cloning technology, was used to generate a tractable system that can efficiently and faithfully activate target genes in a variety of cell types. Six promoters/enhancers, each with different tissue specificities (including vascular tissue, trichomes, root, and reproductive cell types), were used in activation constructs to generate different expression patterns of XVE. Conditional transactivation of reporter genes was achieved in a predictable, tissue-specific pattern of expression, following the insertion of the activator or the responder T-DNA in a wide variety of positions in the genome. Expression patterns were faithfully replicated in independent transgenic plant lines. Results demonstrate that we can also induce mutant phenotypes using conditional ectopic gene expression. One of these mutant phenotypes could not have been identified using noninducible ectopic gene expression approaches
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