THE grey wolf (Canis lupus L, 1758) is a wild canid that has been studied mainly in terms of the anaesthetic protocol nec-essary for its capture and restraint, and its susceptibility to viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases (Kennedy-Stoskopf 2003). Because of the difficulties associated with examining and applying diagnostic tests to wild animals, there is little information about the prevalence of non-infectious diseases, particularly cardiovascular disorders, in wolves. Cardio-vascular anomalies were observed in two juveniles, and mitral valve dysplasia and endocardiosis in an adult, during post-mortem examinations of 62 captive red wolves (Canis rufus) (Acton and others 2000). The diagnostic and surgical man-agement of a patent ductus venosus in a red wolf has also been described (Day and others 1992). Electrocardiography and cardiac ultrasonography are tw
To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.