Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Corporate learning and radical change : the case of Korean Chaebol.

By Jong-Ho Lee
Topics: History Demography
Year: 2002
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.dur.ac.uk:1724
Provided by: Durham e-Theses

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2000), doi
  2. 110innovation systems (e.g. Edquist and Johnson, 1997; Gertler, 2000; 2001a; 2001b). Thus, the company outlined a spatial restructuring strategy with two distinctive aspects. On the one hand, labour-intensive and low value-added production has been shifted
  3. 112for medium and small-sized TVs (less than 17 inches) and TVCR models to Indonesian
  4. 114In the past, there was very limited power in each business division. Actually, leaders of each production cluster composing a business division were
  5. 128understanding and common sense. These elements of relational/organisational
  6. 156For the last few years, SEC has been celebrated as an exemplary case that has sustained path-breaking adaptation (see Fortune, 24 January 2000; Financial Times, 27 March 2000; Business
  7. 157Table 6.1 Market share in memory chips (1998) .1•" 2"d 3rd 41b DRAM Samsung (Korea) Micron (US) Hyundai (Korea) NEC (Japan) 2,854' (18.6%)b 1,791 (11.7%) 1,752
  8. 2.2. Defining corporate adaptation One of the central themes in evolutionary and competence-based theories of the
  9. 2.5.1. Downsizing Downsizing is referred to as a means to reduce the size and scope of firm's activities.
  10. 2.5.4. Innovations in process and product Sustaining innovation in products and processes is important if firms doi
  11. 233Amsden, A. H. (1989),
  12. 234Braczyk, H-J., Heidenreich, M. and Cooke, P. (eds.) (1998), Regional Innovation Systems: the Role of Governance in a Global World, London: UCL Press.
  13. 236Dicken, P. (2000), Places and flows: situating international investment, in Clark, G., Gertler, M. and Feldman, M. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 275-291.
  14. 237Florida, R. (1998), Calibrating the learning region, in de la Mothe, J. and Paquet, G. (eds.), Local and Regional Systems of Innovation, Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 19-28.
  15. 238Gertler, M. (2001a), Best practice? Geography, learning and institutional limits to strong convergence, Journal of Economic Geography, 1(1), pp. 5-26. doi
  16. 239Hayter, R. (1997), The Dynamics of Industrial Location, London: Wiley.
  17. 240Huber, G. P. (1996), Organizational learning: the contributing processes and the literatures, in Cohen, M. and Sproull, L. S. (eds.), Organizational Learning, London: Sage, pp. 124-162.
  18. 241Kelcmen, M. (1999), The myth of restructuring, competent managers and the transition to a market economy: a Romanian tale, British Journal of Management, 10, pp. 199-208. doi
  19. 242Lam, A. (1994). The utilization of human resources: a comparative study of British and Japanese engineers in electronics industries, Human Resource Management Journal, 4(3), pp. 22-40. doi
  20. 244Mathews, J. (1998), Fashioning a new Korean model out of the crisis: the rebuilding of institutional capabilities, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 22(6), pp. 747-759. doi
  21. 247Sharfman, M. and Dean Jr., J. (1997), Flexibility in strategic decision making: informational and ideological perspectives, Journal of Management Studies, 34(2), pp. 191-217. doi
  22. 3.2. A critical perspective on geographies of learning and proximity
  23. 36Table 2.2 A tvno1ovof communities within the firm Functional groups Project teams Epistemic communities Communities of practice Informal networks Goal To deliver a product or service To
  24. 4.5.2. Interviewing The main methods that I have used were semi-structured in-depth interviews. To avoid misinterpreting the data collected from the interviews, I conducted corporate interviewing
  25. 43Table 2.3 Purposes of inter-firm alliances by large firms Classification Purposes Marketing Production Technology (R&D) Penetrating market and intensifying market positioning Overcoming trade barrier
  26. 45 See Rallet and Torre (2000) for an example of the empirical research supporting this view.
  27. 47 Based on interviews with a manager of the management team, DDD (L-1, 23/07/00) and a manager of the development support team, DDD (L-10, 19/08/00). 1341996 1994 1991 Table 5.4 Overseas R&D laboratories (LGE) Name Location Research areas Esta b.
  28. 5.6. Restructuring domestic R&D activities 5.6.1. Regulating technological competences:
  29. 8.4. doi
  30. 99The LG group is no exception. LGE, the flagship company of the group, also attempted restructuring strategies to resolve the problem. Downsizing
  31. A. doi
  32. A. (2001a), Spatialities of globalisation, mimeo, Department of Geography, University
  33. (1999). and doi
  34. and Palan, R. (2000), Post-rationalist international political economy, Paper presented at the Annual Conference of RGS/IBG, University of Sussex, 4-8 January.
  35. Antonelli, C. (1999), The evolution of the industrial organisation of the production of knowledge, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 23(2), pp. 243-260. doi
  36. Aoki, M. (1990), The participatory generation of information rents and the theory of the firm, in Aoki, M., Gustafsson, B. and Williamson, 0. (eds.), The Firm as a Nexus
  37. Argyris and Schon (1978), for example, distinguish 'single-loop learning' from 'doubleloop learning'. Single-loop learning involves incremental
  38. As defined by Dosi and his colleagues (Coriat and Dosi, 1998; Dosi and Marengo, 1751994),
  39. b Market share ' NVM: Non-Volatile Memory As a doi
  40. Being the flagship company of each chaebol, both LGE and SEC have been at the heart of the chaebol reform programme. To adapt to extremely uncertain economic conditions, the core issue became that of streamlining operations and
  41. Blanc, H. and Sierra, C. (1999), The internationalisation of R&D by multinationals: a trade-off between external and internal proximity, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 23(2), pp. 187-206. doi
  42. Both dimensions of proximity would thus be complementary. Let us suppose a case 64where two agents are geographically separated from one another, but share the same culture at the
  43. Bowman, E., Singh, H. (1990), Overview of corproate restructuring: trends and consequences, in Rock, M. L. and Rock, R. H. (eds.), Corporate Restructuring: A Guide to Creating the Premium-Valued Company, New York: McGrow Hill, pp. 8-22.
  44. Brown, J. S. and Duguid, P. (1991), Organizational learning and communities of practice: toward a unified view of working, learning, and innovation, Organization Science, 2, pp. 40-57. doi
  45. Brown, J. S. and Duguid, P. (1998), Organizing knowledge, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 90-111. doi
  46. Brown, J. S. and Duguid, P. (2000), The Social Life of Information, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. doi
  47. Burns, T. and Stalker, G. M. (1961), The Management of Innovation, London: Tavistock. doi
  48. Burton-Jones, A. (1999), Knowledge Capitalism: Business, Work, and Learning in the New Economy, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  49. Campbell, A. and Warner, M. (1992), New technology, skills and management: Human Resources in the Market Economy, London: Routledge.
  50. Castells, M. (1996), The Rise of the Network Society, Oxford: Blackwell. doi
  51. Chandler, A. (1962), Strategy and Structure, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  52. Chang, H. J. (1994), The Political Economy of Industrial Policy, London: Macmillan Press.
  53. Chapter 5 on LG illustrates in particular the processes of learning, taking place between R&D units, and between R&D and manufacturing. This in-depth case study emphasises the
  54. Child, J. (2001), Learning through strategic alliances, in Dierkes, M. et al. (eds.), Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 657-680.
  55. Chung, K. H., Lee, H. C. and Jung K. H. (1997), Korean Management: Global Strategy and Cultural Transformation, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
  56. co-location
  57. Cohen, W. and Levinthal, D. (1990), Absorptive capacity: a new perspective on learning and innovation, Administrative Science Quarterly, 35 (1), pp. 128-152. doi
  58. Cohendet, P. (1999b), Organisational learning and governance through embedded
  59. Cohendet, P. and Llerena, P. (1997), Learning, technological change, and public policy: how to create and exploit diversity, in Edquist, C. (ed.), Systems of Innovation: technologies, institutions and organizations, London: Pinter, pp. 223-241.
  60. Cohendet, P. and Llerena, P. (2001), Routines and the theory of the firm: the role of communities, Paper presented at the Nelson and Winter Conference, Aalborg University, 12-15 June.
  61. Cohendet, P., Kern, F., Mehmanpazir, B. and Munier, F. (1999), Knowledge 235coordination, competence creation and integrated networks in globalised firms, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 23(2), pp. 225-41. doi
  62. Coincidently, Glasmeier and Fuellhart (1996) also argue that, while agglomeration economies certainly promote
  63. Combining IBM's technologies and 1996 brand
  64. commentators,
  65. Consequently, LGE consolidated LGIC (LG Information & Communication
  66. Conventionally,
  67. Cook, S. and Yanow, D. (1996), Culture and organizational learning, in Cohen, M. D. and Sproull, L. S. (eds.), Organizational Learning, London: Sage, pp. 430-459.
  68. Cooke, P. and Morgan, K. (1993), The network paradigm: new departures in corporate and regional development, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 11, pp. 543-564. doi
  69. Cooke, P. and Morgan, K. (1998), The Associational Economy: Firms, Regions, and Innovation, New York: Oxford University Press.
  70. Cowan, R., David, P. and Foray, D. (1999), The explicit economics of knowledge codification and tacitness, Paper presented to the 3 rd TIPIK Workshop, University of Louis Pasteur, 24 April.
  71. Davenport, T. (2000), "Strategic communities" and knowledge diffusion, Sloan Management Review, 42(2), p. 9.
  72. Davis, G. and Powell, W. (1990), Organization-environment relations, in Dunnette, M. and Hough, L. (eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (2nd ed.), Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, pp. 315-376.
  73. de la Mothe, J. and Paquet, G. (1998), Local and regional systems of innovation as learning socio-economies, in de la Mothe, J. and Paquet, G. (eds.), Local and regional Systems of Innovation, Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 1-18. doi
  74. Delbridge, R. and Kenney, M. and Lowe, J. (1998), UK manufacturing in the twentyfirst century: learning factories and knowledge workers?, in Delbridge, R. and Lowe, J. (eds.), Manufacturing in Transition, London: Routledge, pp. 224-241.
  75. Despite their remarkable role as drivers of rapid industrialisation in the Korean economy, chaebol have had a number of negative effects on the economy. As many commentators have pointed out, it is widely accepted
  76. DiBella, A., Nevis, E. and Gould, J. (1996), Understanding organizational learning capability, Journal of Management Studies, 33(3), pp. 361-379. doi
  77. Dicken, P., Forsgren, M. and Malmberg, A. (1994), The local embeddedness of transnational corporations, in Amin, A. and Thrift, N. (eds.), Globalization, Institutions, and Regional Development in Europe, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 23-45.
  78. Dodgson, M. (1993), Organizational learning: a review of some literatures, Organization Studies, 14(3), pp. 375-394. doi
  79. Dosi, G. and Marengo, L. (1994), Some elements of an evolutionary theory of organizational competences, in England, R. W. (ed.), Evolutionary Concepts in Contemporary Economics, Ann Harbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 157-178.
  80. Dwyer, C. and Limb, M. (2001), Introduction: doing qualitative research in geography, in Limb, M. Dwyer, C. eds., Qualitative Methodologies for Geographers: Issues and Debates, London: Arnold, pp. 1-20.
  81. Economic Studies Division at the Social Participation Alliance Group (1999), HanKook 5 Dae Chaebol Baek-Seo: 1995-1997 [A White Paper on Korea's Top 5 Chaebol: 1995-1997], Seoul: Nanam (in Korean).
  82. Edquist, C. and Johnson, B. (1997), Institutions and organizations in systems of innovation, in Edquist, C. (ed.), Systems of Innovation: Technologies, Institutions and Organizations, London: Pinter, pp. 41-63. doi
  83. Eriksen, B. and Amit, R. (1996), Strategic implications of business process reengineering, in Foss, N. J. and Knudsen, C. (eds.), Towards a Competence Theory of the Firm, London: Routledge, pp. 97-110.
  84. Ernst, D. (2000a), Catching-up and post-crisis industrial upgrading: searching for new sources of growth in Korea's electronics industry, Working Paper, No. 2, East-West Center, University of Hawaii, USA.
  85. Ernst, D. (2000b), The economics of electronics industry: competitive dynamics and industrial organization, Working Paper, No. 7, East-West Center, University of Hawaii, USA.
  86. Ettlinger, N. (2000), Frontiers of flexibility and the importance of place and space, Paper presented at the Workshop on the Firm in Economic Geography, University of Portsmouth, UK, 9-11, March.
  87. Figure 5.1 Changes in the number of domestic workforce 4 350 3 25 0 s... a) I 2 0 Z 15000 --*-- R&D — -II — Pmduceon A 0 them —X— Total 100
  88. Florida, R. (1995), Toward the learning region, Futures, 27, pp. 527-536. doi
  89. For Levitt and March (1996: 517), the concept of 'routine' does not just include the forms, rules, procedures, conventions, strategies and technologies around which
  90. Foray, D. and Lundvall, B. (1996), The Knowledge-Based Economy, Paris: OECD. doi
  91. Forbes, N. and Wield, D. (2000), Managing R&D in technology-followers, Research Policy, 29, pp. 1095-1109. doi
  92. Foss, N. J. (1993), The theory of the firm: contractual and competence perspectives, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 3, pp. 127-44. doi
  93. Foss, N. J. (1998), The competence-based approach: Veblenian ideas in the modern theory of the firm, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 22, pp. 479-495. doi
  94. Fox, S. (2000), Communities of practice, Foucault and actor-network theory, Journal of Management Studies, 37(6), pp. 853-867. doi
  95. Fraud, J., Haslam, C., Johal, S. and Williams, K. (2000), Restructuring for shareholder value and its implications for labour, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 24, pp. 771-797. doi
  96. Fromhold-Eisebith, M. (1999), Balgalore: a network model for innovation-oriented regional development in NICs?, in Malecki, E. and Oinas, P. (eds.), Making Connections: Technological Learning and Regional Economic Change, Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 231-260.
  97. Fruin, W. M. (1992), The Japanese enterprise system: competitive strategies and cooperative structures, Oxford: Clarendon Press. doi
  98. Fruin, W. M. (1997), Knowledge Works: Managing Intellectual Capital at Toshiba; New York: Oxford University Press. doi
  99. Fukuyama, F. (1995), Trust: the Social Virtures and the Creation of Prosperity, London: Hamish Hamilton.
  100. Gertler, M. (1995), Being there: proximity, organization and culture in the development and adoption of advanced manufacturing technologies, Economic Geography, 71, pp. 1-26. doi
  101. Gertler, M. (2001b), Tacit knowledge and the economic geography of context or the undefinable tacitness of being (there), Paper presented at the Nelson and Winter DRUID Summer Conference, Aalborg, Denmark, 12-15 June.
  102. gives
  103. Glasmeier, A. and Fuellhart, K. (1996), What do we know about firm learning?, mimeo, Department of Geography, The Pennsylvania State University.
  104. Gnyawali, D. R. (1999), Inter-organizational learning dynamics: roles of networks on knowledge creation, mimeo, Department of Management, Virginia Politechnic Institute and State University.
  105. Grabher, G. (2002), Cool projects, boring institutions: temporary collaboration in social context, Regional Studies, 36(3), pp. 205-214. doi
  106. Haas, P. (1992), Introduction: epistemic communities and international policy coordination, International Organization, 46, pp. 1-35. doi
  107. Hamilton, G. G. and Feenstra, R. C. (1997), Varieties of hierarchies and markets, in Orru, M., Biggart, N. W. and Hamilton, G. G. eds., The Economic Organization of East Asian Capitalism, London: Sage, pp. 55-94.
  108. Hannan, M. T. and Freeman, J. (1977), The population ecology of organizations, American Journal of Sociology, 82, pp. 929-964. doi
  109. Hargadon, A. (1998), Firms as knowledge brokers: lessons in pursuing continuous innovation, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 209-228. doi
  110. Harrington, J. W. et al. (1999), Economic geography: reconceiving "the economic" and "the region", AAAG Economic Geography Specialty Group's Report.
  111. Harrison, B. (1994), Lean and Mean: The Changing Landscape of Corporate Power in the Age of Flexibility, New York: Basic Books. doi
  112. Hatfield, D., Liebeskind, J. and Opler, T. (1996), The effects of corporate restructuring on aggregate industry specialization, Strategic Management Journal, 17, pp. 55-72. doi
  113. Hayes, J. and Allison, C. W. (1998), Cognitive style and the theory and practice of individual and collective learning in organizations, Human Relations, 51(7), pp. 847-872. doi
  114. Hayter, R. (1996), Research and development, in Daniels, P. and Lever, W. (eds.), The Global Economy in Transitions, London: Longman, pp. 164-190.
  115. Hedberg, B. (1981), How organizations learn and unlearn, in Nystrom, P. C. and Starbuck, W. (eds.), Handbook of Organizational Design, Vol. 1: Adapting Organizations to Their Environments, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 3-27. doi
  116. Hedlund, G. (1994), A model of knowledge management and the N-form corporation, Strategic Management Journal, 15, pp. 73-90. doi
  117. Helfat, C. E. (1998), Simple indicators of adaptation versus rigidity in historydependent firm activities and decision rules, Industrial and Corporate Change, 7(1), pp. 49-75. doi
  118. Helfat, C. E. and Raubitschek, R. S. (2000), Product sequencing: co-evolution of knowledge, capabilities and products, Strategic Management Journal, 21, pp. 961-979. doi
  119. Hendry, C. (1996), Understanding and creating whole organizational change through learning theory, Human Relations, 49(5), pp. 621-642. doi
  120. Hobday, M. (1995), Innovation in East Asia — The Challenge to Japan, Aldershot: Edward Elgar. doi
  121. Hodgson, G. M. (1993), Economics and Evolution: Bringing Life Back into Economics, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
  122. Hodgson, G. M. (1996), Varieties of capitalism and varieties of economic theory, Review of International Political Economy, 3, pp. 381-434. doi
  123. Hodgson, G. M. (1998a), Competence and contract in the theory of the firm, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 35(2), pp. 179-201. doi
  124. Hodgson, G. M. (1998b), Evolutionary and competence-based theories of the firm, Journal of Economic Studies, 25(1), pp. 25-56. doi
  125. Hodgson, G. M. (1999), Economics and Utopia: Why the Learning Economy is not the End of History, London: Routledge. doi
  126. Hoggart, K. and Paniagua, A. (2001), What rural restructuring, Journal of Rural Studies, 17(1), pp. 41-62. doi
  127. Hollingsworth, J. R. (2000), Doing institutional analysis: implications for the study of innovations, Review of International Political Economy, 7(4), pp. 595-644. doi
  128. Howells, J. (2000), Knowledge, innovation and location, in Bryson, J. et al. (eds.), Knowledge, Space, Economy, London: Routledge, pp. 50-62.
  129. Howells, J. (2002), Tacit knowledge, innovation and economic geography, Urban Studies, 39(5-6), pp. 871-884. doi
  130. (1989). However, the reasoning behind these arguments can be questioned. Contemporary firms operate under pressure to cope with rapid changes in markets and technology. These competitive environments require firms to learn and adapt better
  131. However, this definition of adaptation is unnecessarily narrow. A firm's responses to environmental change can be diverse.
  132. Hudson, R. (1997), The end of mass production and of the mass collective worker? Experimenting with production and employment, in Lee, R. and Wills, J. (eds.), Geographies of Economies, London: Arnold, pp. 302-310.
  133. Hudson, R. (1999), The learning economy, the learning firm and the learning region: a sympathetic critique of the limits to learning, European Urban and Regional Studies, 6(1), pp. 59-72. doi
  134. Hudson, R. (2001), Producing Places, New York: Guilford Press.
  135. Hutchins, E. (1996), Organizing work by adaptation, in Cohen, M. D. and Sproull, L. S. (eds.), Organizational Learning, London: Sage, pp. 20-57.
  136. In 1995 the company had acquired the American PC maker, once one of the top American PC manufacturers, with a view to penetrating the US personal computer market. But, the subsidiary
  137. In addition, many products considered to be low-profit, peripheral items, such as small appliances, audios, VCRs and refrigerators, were transferred in
  138. In fact, the local product-specific lab in Pyungtaek had already existed from 1984 with the name the 123Table 5.3 Domestic R&D laboratories (LGE) Name Location Research areas Estab.
  139. In modern Korean history, the emergence of the chaebol can
  140. incremental doi
  141. Inkpen, A. (1996), Creating knowledge through collaboration, California Management Review, 39(1), pp. 123-140. doi
  142. Interestingly, it
  143. is
  144. is about the relationship between knowledge
  145. It is known that the group's chairman had two
  146. J. (2000), Power/economic knowledge: symbolic and spatial doi
  147. Janelli, R. (1993), Making Capitalism: The Social and Cultural Construction of a South Korean Conglomerate, Stanford: Stanford University Press. doi
  148. Jung, S. J. (1997), The social structure of accumulation in South Korea: upgrading or crumbling?, Review of Radical Political Economics, 29(4), pp. 92-112. doi
  149. Jwa, S. H. and K. Lee, (2000), Korean chaebol in transition: road ahead and agenda, unpublished manuscript, Korea Economic Research Institute.
  150. Kang, C. K. (1999), Chaebol Kae-Hyuk-Eui Kyung-Je-Hak (Economics of a Reform of Chaebol), Seoul: Dasan Publishing (in Korean).
  151. Kang, J. K. (1996), Samsung Jeon-Ja: Shin-Hwa-Wa Kui Bi-Jyul (Samsung Electronics Co.: Its Success Story), Seoul: Koryowon (in Korean).
  152. Kang, M. H. (1996), The Korean Business Conglomerate: Chaebol Then and Now, Berkeley: University of California Press. doi
  153. Kanter, R. M. (1989), When Giants Learn to Dance: Mastering the Challenges of Strategy, Management and Careers in the 1990s, London: Simon & Schuster. doi
  154. Keeble, D. and Wilkinson, F. (1999), Collective learning and knowledge development in the evolution of regional clusters of high technology SMEs in Europe, Regional Studies, 33(4), pp. 295-303. doi
  155. Kenney, M. and Florida, R. (1993), Beyond Mass Production: the Japanese System and Its Transfer to the U.S., Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi
  156. Kim, E. M. (1996), The industrial organization and growth of the Korean chaebol: integrating development and organizational theories, Hamilton, G. G. (ed.), Asian Business Networks, New York: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 231-251. doi
  157. Kim, L. (1997), Imitation to Innovation: The Dynamics of Korea's Technological Learning, Boston: Harvard Business School Press. doi
  158. Kim, L. (1998), Crisis construction and organizational learning: capability building in catching-up at Hyundai motor, Organization Science, 9(4), pp. 506-521. doi
  159. Kline, S. (1991), Government technology policy: what should it do?, Report INN-6, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University.
  160. Kogut, B. and Zander, U. (1992), Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities, and the replication of technology, Organization Science, 3(3), pp. 383-397. doi
  161. Kotter, J. P. and Heskett, J. L. (1992), Corporate Culture and Performance, New York: Free Press.
  162. Kraatz, M. S. (1998), Learning by association?: Interorganizational networks and adaptation to environmental change, Academy of Management Journal, 41(6), pp. 621-643. doi
  163. Kumar, N. (2001), Determinants of Location of overseas R&D activity Qf multaatimal exterprises: the case of US and Japanese corporations, Research Policy, 30, pp. 159-174. doi
  164. Kuwada, K. (1998), Strategic learning: the continuous side of discontinuous strategic change, Organization Science, 9(6), pp. 719-736. doi
  165. Laitinen, E. K. (2000), Long-term success of adaptation strategies: evidence from Finnish companies, Long Range Planning, 33(4), pp. 805-30. doi
  166. Lam, A. (1996), Engineers, management and work organization: a comparative analysis of engineers work roles in British and Japanese electronics firms, Journal of Management Studies, 33(2), pp. 183-212. doi
  167. Lam, A. (2000), Tacit knowledge, organizational learning and societal institutions: an integrated framework, Organization Studies, 21(3), pp. 487-513. doi
  168. Langlois, R. N. and Robertson, P. L. (1995), Firms, Markets and Economic Change: a Dynamic Theory of Business Institutions, London: Routledge. doi
  169. Lastly, as many argue (e.g. Dicken, 2000; Hollingsworth, 2000; Whitley 1992; 1999; Yeung, 1998; 2001), it is
  170. Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1990), Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi
  171. Lawrence, P. R. and Lorsch, J. W. (1967), Organization and the Environment: Managing Dfferenciation and Integration, Boston: Harvard University, Graduate School of Business Administration. doi
  172. Lee, J-H. (1998), Industrial networks and institutional embeddedness: the case of the Changwon industrial district, South Korea, MA Thesis, Kyungpook National University, Korea.
  173. Lee, K. (1999), Corporate governance and growth in the Korean chaebols: a microeconomic foundation for the 1997 crisis, mimeo, Division of Economics, Seoul National University.
  174. Leonard, D. and Swap, J. (1999), When Sparks Fly: Igniting Creativity in Groups, Boston: Harvard Business School Press, cited in Thrift, N. (2000).
  175. Leroy, F. and Ramanantsoa, B. (1997), The cognitive and behavioural dimensions of organizational learning in a merger, Journal of Management Studies, 34(6), pp. 871-894. doi
  176. Let us examine the LGE experience of globalisation of R&D. As illustrated in Table 5.4, in January
  177. Let us take some examples from overseas R&D laboratories that have
  178. Levinthal, D. (1991), Organizational adaptation and environmental selection -interrelated processes of change, Management Science, 2(1), pp. 140-45. doi
  179. Levinthal, D. (1996), Learning and Schumpeterian dynamics, in Dosi, G. and Malerba, F. (eds.), Organisation and Strategy in the Evolution of the Enterprise, London: Macmillan, pp. 27-41.
  180. Levitt, B. and March, J. G. (1996), Organistional learning, in Cohen, M. D. and Sproull, L. S. (eds.), Organizational Learning, London: Sage, pp. 516-540.
  181. Liedtka, J. (1999), Linking competitive advantage with communities of practice, Journal of Management Inquiry, 8(1), pp. 5-16. doi
  182. Lovering, J. (1989), The restructuring debate, in Thrift, N. and Peet, R. (eds.), New 243Models in Geography [Vol. I], London: Unwin Hyman, pp. 198-223.
  183. Lowe, J., Delbridge, R. and Oliver, N. (1997), High-performance manufacturing: evidence from the automotive components industry, Organization Studies, 18(5), pp. 783-798. doi
  184. Lundvall, B. (1988), Innovation as an interactive process: from user-producer interaction to the national system of innovation, in Dosi, G. et al. (eds.), Technical Change and Economic Theory, London: Frances Pinter, pp. 349-369.
  185. Lundvall, B. (1996), The social dimension of the learning economy, Working Paper 96-1, Danish Research Unit for Industrial Dynamics (DRUID), Aalborg Univeraity.
  186. M., 1988, 1989). On the other hand, studies in strategic management and entrepreneurship tend to focus on the role of entrepreneurship and the firm's continuous efforts to acquire new technologies and knowledge (e.g. Hobday, 1995; Kim, I., 1997).
  187. Malecki, E. (2000), Stretching the boundaries of the firm: making connections with external resources, Paper presented at the Workshop on the Firm in Economic Geography, University of Portsmouth, 9-11 March.
  188. Malmberg, A., and Maskell, P. (1997), Towards an explanation of regional specialisaion and industry agglomeration, European Planning Studies, 5, pp. 25-41. doi
  189. March, J. (1991), Exploration and exploitation in organisational learning, Organization Science, 2(1), pp. 71-87. doi
  190. Marengo, L. (1995), Structure, competence, and learning in organisations, Wirtschaftspolitische Blatter, 6, 454-64; cited in Amin, A. and Cohendet, P. (1999).
  191. Markusen, A. (2000), Fuzzy concepts, scanty evidence, policy distance: the case for rigour and policy relevance in critical regional studies, Regional Studies, 33(9), pp. 869-884. doi
  192. Martin, R. (2001), Geography and public policy, Progress in Human Geography, 25(2), pp. 189-210. doi
  193. Maskell, P. (1999), Globalisation and industrial competitiveness: the process and consequences of ubiquitification, in Malecki, E. and Oinas, P. (eds.), Making Connections: Technological Learning and Regional Economic Change, Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 35-60.
  194. Maskell, P. (2001), The firm in economic geography, Economic Geography, 77(4), 329-344. doi
  195. Maskell, P. and Malmberg, A. (1999a), The competitiveness of firms and regions: ubiquitification and the importance of localized learning, European Urban and Regional Studies, 6(1), pp. 9-25. doi
  196. Maskell, P. and Malmberg, A. (1999b), Localised learning and industrial competitiveness, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 23, pp. 167-185. doi
  197. Massey, D. (1984), Spatial Divisions of Labour: Social Structures and the Geography of Production, London: Macmillan. doi
  198. McGrath-champ, S. (1999), Strategy and industrial restructuring, Progress in Human Geography, 23(2), pp. 236-252. doi
  199. Meanwhile, in LG, the spatially dispersed multi-divisional form of organisation challenges
  200. Metcalfe, J. S. (1998a), Evolutionary Economics and Creative Destruction, London: Routledge. doi
  201. Metcalfe, J. S. (1998b), Evolutionary concepts in relation to evolutionary economics, Working Paper no. 4, Centre for Research on Innovation and Competition (CRIC), University of Manchester.
  202. Metcalfe, J. S. and Calderini, M. (1997), Compound learning, neural nets and the competitive process, Working Paper no. 1, Centre for Research on Innovation and Competition (CRIC), University of Manchester.
  203. Morgan, K. (1996), Learning-by-interacting: inter-firm networks and enterprise support, in OECD, Networks of Enterprises and Local Development: Competing and Cooperating in Local Productive Systems, Paris: OECD, pp. 53-66.
  204. Morgan, K. (1997), The learning region: institutions, innovation and regional renewal, Regional Studies, 31(5), pp. 491-503. doi
  205. N. doi
  206. Nelson, R. (1991), Why do firms differ, and how does it matter?, Strategic Management Journal, 14, pp. 61-74. doi
  207. Nelson, R. and Winter, S. (1982), An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change, Cambridge: Belknap Press. doi
  208. Nohria, N. and Gulati, R. (1994), Firms and their environments, in Smelser, N. J. and Swedberg, R. (eds.), The Handbook of Economic Sociology, Princeton: NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 504-528.
  209. Nonaka and Takeuchi's (1995) model of knowledge conversion gives a fascinating illustration of how these forms of proximity are interwoven.
  210. Nonaka, I. and Konno, N. (1998), The concept of ' ba' : building a foundation for 245knowledge creation, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 40-54. doi
  211. Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. (1995), The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation, New York: Oxford University Press. doi
  212. Nonaka, I., Toyama, R. and Konno, N. (2001), SECT, Ba and leadership: a unified model of dynamic knowledge creation, in Nonaka, I. And Teece, D. (eds.), Managing Industrial Knowledge: Creation, Transfer and Utilization, London: Sage, pp. 13-43. doi
  213. Nooteboom, B. (1999a), Innovation, learning and industrial organisation, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 23(2), pp. 127-150. doi
  214. Nooteboom, B. (1999b), Inter-firm Alliances: Analysis and Design, London: Routledge. doi
  215. Nooteboom, B. (2000), Learning by interaction: absorptive capacity, cognitive distance and governance, unpublished manuscript, Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
  216. Nystrom, P. C. and Starbuck, W. (1984), To avoid organizational crises, unlearn, Organizational Dynamics, 13 (1), pp. 53-65. doi
  217. Odgaard, M. and Hudson, R. (1998), The misplacement of learning in economic geography, mimeo, Department of Geography, University of Durham.
  218. OECD, (2000), OECD Economic Surveys: Korea, Paris: OECD. doi
  219. OECD, (2001), OECD Economic Surveys: Korea, Paris: OECD. doi
  220. of restructuring and learning Much of the recent literature on organisational
  221. Often, members of the team may even sleep in the working room. In the process of a problem-solving activity, members
  222. Oinas, P. (1999), Activity-specificity in organizational learning: implications for analysing the role of proximity, GeoJournal, 49, pp. 363-372.
  223. Oinas, P. (2000), Distance and learning: does proximity matter?, in Boekema, F. et al. (eds.), Knowledge, Innovation and Economic Growth, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 57-69.
  224. Park, B. G. (2001), Labor regulation and economic change: a view on the Korean economic crisis, Geoforum, 32 (1), pp. 61-75. doi
  225. Park, S. 0. and Nahm, K. B. (1998), Spatial structure and inter-firm networks of technical and information producer services in Seoul, Korea, Asia Pacific Viewpoints, 39(2), pp. 209-19. doi
  226. Pavitt, K. and Patel, P. (1999), Global corporations and national systems of innovation: who dominates whom?, in Archibugi, D. and Hoewlls, J. and Michie, J. (eds.), Innovation Policy in a Global Economy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 94-119. doi
  227. Penrose, E. (1959), The Theory of the Growth of the Firm, Oxford: Oxford University 246Press.
  228. Pfeffer, J. and Salancik, G. (1978), The External Control of Organizations, New York: Harper and Row. doi
  229. Polanyi, M. (1967), The Tacit Dimension, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  230. Powell, W. (1998), Learning from collaboration: knowledge and networks in the biotechnology and phamaceutical industries, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 228-239. doi
  231. Prahalad, C. and Hamel, G. (1990), The core competence of the coropration, Harvard Business Review, 68(3), pp. 79-91.
  232. Rallet, A. and Torre, A. (1999), Is geographical proximity necessary in the innovation networks in the era of global economy?, GeoJournal, 49, pp. 373-380. doi
  233. Rock, M. L. and Rock, R. H. (1990), Introduction, in Rock, M. L. and Rock, R. H. (eds.), Corporate Restructuring: A Guide to Creating the Premium-Valued Company, New York: McGrow Hill, pp. 1-6.
  234. Sachwald, F. (1998), Cooperative agreements and the theory of the firm: focusing on barriers to change, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 35, pp. 203-225. doi
  235. (1990). Samsung started its business in consumer electronics about 30 years ago. However, the company emerged as an international player in the electronics industry by virtue of the surprising success of DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) chips since
  236. Saviotti, P. P. (1996), Technological Evolution, Variety and the Economy, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. doi
  237. Saxenian, A., (1994), Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128, Cambridge: Harvard University Press. doi
  238. Sayer, A. and Walker, R. (1992), The New Social Economy: Reworking the Division of Labor, Oxford: Blackwell. doi
  239. Schein, E. H. (1992), Organizational Culture and Leadership, San Francisco: JosseyBass. doi
  240. Schoenberger, E. (1991), The corporate interview as a research method in economic geography, Professional Geographer, 43(2), pp. 180-189. doi
  241. Schoenberger, E. (1997), The Cultural Crisis of the Firm, Oxford: Blackwell.
  242. Scott, W. R. (1983), The organization of environments: network, cultural, and historical elements, in Meyer, J. W. and Scott, W. R. (eds.), Organizational Environments: Ritual and Rationality, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, pp. 155-175.
  243. Scott, W. R. (1987), Adolescence of institutional theory, Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, pp. 493-511. doi
  244. See for example Park and Nahm (1998) on the increasing concentration of managerial
  245. Selznick, P. (1957), Leadership in Administration, New York: Harper & Row.
  246. Silverman, D. (2000), Doing Qualitative Research: A Practical Handbook, London: Sage. doi
  247. Simmie, J. (ed.) (1997), Innovation, Networks and Learning Regions?, London: Jessica Kingsley.
  248. Since Michael Polanyi (1967) who emphasised some years ago the tacit dimension in the epistemology of knowledge, scholars have discussed the role of diverse forms of knowledge
  249. Since organisational theorists such as Selznick (1957) and Penrose (1959) introduced the concept of competence to identify
  250. Some communities of practice meet regularly - for lunch on Thursdays, say. Others are connected primarily by e-mail networks. A community of practice may or may not have an explicit agenda on a given week, and even if
  251. Some types of learning are related to the acquisition of tacit knowledge. For
  252. Sternberg, R. and Arndt, 0. (2000), The firm or the region what determines European firms innovation behaviour?, Paper presented at the Workshop on the Firm in Economic Geography, University of Portsmouth, 9-11, March. doi
  253. Storck, J. and Hill, P. (2000), Knowledge diffusion through "strategic communities", Sloan Management Review, 41(2), pp. 63-74. doi
  254. Storper, M. (1997), The Regional World: Territorial Development in a Global Economy, New York: Guilford Press.
  255. Storper, M. and Walker, R. (1989), The Capitalist Imperative: Territory, Technology and Industrial Growth, Oxford: Blackwell. doi
  256. Table 5.1 Major cases of business downsizing (1998-2000) Forms of
  257. Taylor, M. and Asheim, B. (2001), The concept of the firm in economic geography, Economic Geography, 77(4), pp. 315-328. doi
  258. Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., and Shuen, A. (1997), Dynamic capabilities and strategic management, in Foss, N. J. (ed.), Resource, Firms and Strategies: A Reader in the Resource-based Perspective, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 268-285.
  259. Teubal, M. and Andersen, E. (2000), Enterprise restructuring and embeddedness: a policy and systems perspectives, Industrial and Corporate Change, 9(1), pp. 87-111. doi
  260. The
  261. The company also sold off another US subsidiary, SMS, which produced chemical materials used for manufacturing semiconductors, regarded as a non-core business. In turn, the
  262. The DDD has three domestic plants, all of which have been based in Kumi in the Southeast of Korea since the late 1970s. The division is closely associated with two product-specific local laboratories in
  263. The Department of Judicial Affairs (1998), Interpreting the new labour law, The Ministry of Labour (in Korean).
  264. The FIAT case shows a co-location model where the project team members work together in part of existing work
  265. The most active way in which doi
  266. Therefore, I doi
  267. Thompson, J. D. (1967), Organizations in Action, New York: McGraw-Hill. doi
  268. Thrift, N. (1996), Shut up and dance, or, is the world economy knowable?, in Daniels, P. W. and Lever, W. F. (eds.), The Global Economy in Transition, London: Addison Wesley Longman, pp. 11-23.
  269. Thrift, N. (2000), Performing cultures in the new economy, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 90(4), pp. 674-692. doi
  270. Thrift, N. (2002), Cities: Reimagining doi
  271. Tidd, J., Bessant, J. and Pavitt, K. (1997), Managing Innovation: Integrating Technological, Market and Organizational Change, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
  272. Tunstall, W. B. (1983), Cultural transition at AT&T, Sloan Management Review, 25, 18, 248cited in Huber, G. P. (1996).
  273. Tushman, M. L. and OReilly, C. A. (1996), Ambidextrous organizations: managing evolutionary and revolutionary change, California Management Review, 38(4), pp. 8-30. doi
  274. Until 1998, LGE possessed distinctive business lines and adopted an explicitly multidivisional form of organisation, whereas a substantial centre of power and strategic core functions remained under the control of the CEO and headquarters of the company.
  275. Usui, C. and Colignon, R. A. (1996), Corporate restructuring: converging world pattern or societally specific embeddness?, The Sociological Quarterly, 37 (4), pp. 551-576. doi
  276. Veblen, T. (1899), The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of the Evolution of Institutions, New York: Macmillan.
  277. Video research lab. The company dissolved the organisation to establish a new R&D lab to perform local-specific R&D on multimedia products in 2000.
  278. W. (1997), Institutionalized patrimonialism in
  279. Wenger, E. (1998), Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi
  280. Wenger, E. (2000), Communities of practice and social learning systems, Organization, 7(2), pp. 225-246. doi
  281. Wenger, E. and Snyder, W. (2000), Communities of practice: the organizational frontier, Harvard Business Review, 78(1), pp. 139-145.
  282. Whitley, R. (1992), Business systems in East Asia, London: Sage. doi
  283. Whitley, R. (1998), The social structuring of firms' governance systems and organisational capabilities, Working Paper, No. 387, Manchester Business School, UK.
  284. Whitley, R. (1999), Divergent Capitalisms: the Social Structuring and Change of Business Systems, Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi
  285. Wilkinson, F. (1999),
  286. Williamson, 0. E. (1975), Markets and Hierarichies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications, New York: Free Press.
  287. Winter, S. (1988), On coase, competence, and the corporation, Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 4(1), pp. 163-180.
  288. XIIITo Hyun-Woo, my beloved wife, and our son XIVChapter 1 Introduction It
  289. Y., doi
  290. Yeung, H. W. C. (1998), The social-spatial constitution of business organizations: a geographical perspective, Organization, 5(1), pp. 101-128. doi
  291. Yeung, H. W. C. (1999), Reconceptualising the "firm" in new economic geographies: an organisational perspective, Paper presented at the Workshop on the Firm in Economic Geography, University of Portsmouth, 9-11 March.
  292. Yeung, H. W. C. (2000), State intervention and neoliberalism in the globalizing world economy: lessons from Singapore's regionalization programme, The Pacific Review, 13(1), pp. 133-162. doi
  293. Yeung, H. W. C. (2001), Entrepreneurship in international business: an institutional 249perspective, forthcoming in Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 19(1).
  294. Yoo, J. H. (2000), Strategic alliances by Korean enterprises, Korea Focus, March-April, pp. 53-69.
  295. Zack, M. (1999), Managing codified knowledge, Sloan Management Review, 40(4), pp. 45-58.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.