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1 CHAPTER ONE: LITERATURE REVIEW

By Historical Background

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest infectious diseases of human kind and still remains one of the biggest killers. The modern members of TB including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium cannetti as well as Mycobacterium bovis originated from one progenitor about 15,000 to 35,000 years ago (Gutierrez et al., 2005). East Africa has been considered the place were TB started but there is lack of concrete evidence to support this theory (Daniel, 2006). TB may affect bones causing skeletal deformities. These has been found in Egypt and other parts of the world such as Denmark, Italy and Middle East countries which proved that TB is a disease that affect people world-wide (Smith, 2003). In Greece, TB was described by Hippocrates as Phthisis or consumption, a condition characterized by wasting away with chest pain and coughing with blood in the sputum. The causative organism was not identified until 1882 by Hermann Heinrich Robert Koch who described it as bacillium. The description of the tubercle bacilli as a causative agent was also the beginning of Koch’s postulate which still forms the basis for the demonstration of infectious etiology (Daniel, 2005)

Year: 2016
OAI identifier: oai:CiteSeerX.psu:10.1.1.947.8343
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