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The origin and setting of the national goals and directive principles in the process of writing the constitution of Papua New Guinea

By Sam Sirox Kari

Abstract

This thesis reveals the origins and meaning of the National Goals and Directive Principles, the processes leading to their tabling, discussion and drafting and the role of the Constitutional Planning Committee and Australia in this process. This thesis investigates for the first time the vision embedded in the National Goals and Directive Principles. The vision of the five National Goals and Directive Principles compelled post- independence governments to deliver social, economic and political development with consideration to equality, economic self-reliance, national sovereignty and protection of the natural environment. The goals were integrated in the constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, however the National Goals and Directive Principles were ignored or only given passing acknowledgement by successive governments. The National Goals and Directive Principles were a road map, which the new nation could follow when the colonial rulers Australia had departed, but some subsequent policies actually contradicted the aspirations, advice and nationalist blueprint declared in the constitution. \ud \ud The translation of the National Goals and Directive Principles to policies implemented by government departments and debated in the House of Assembly comprises the final, but significant, element of this investigation. There has been no major study on the declaration of the National Goals and Directive Principles although 29 years has passed since independence. \ud \ud \ud \ud This thesis reveals the genesis of a national vision and ideas expressed by an educated indigenous elite in Papua New Guinea but mostly influenced by expatriates and foreign consultants over the brief period between responsible government and full independence (1959-1975). The thesis argues that it was more a foreign than home-grown idea that Papua New Guinea would be a viable nation. It identifies the origin of the idea that a nation needed a unifying set of guiding principles and how this vision ended up being embedded in the constitution of the new nation. The central assertion of this thesis is that a vision of the new nation was never agreed upon nor did it emerge from the unique cultures, knowledge and history of Papua New Guinea's people. It argues that Papua New Guinea went through the expected, conventional process of decolonisation and constitution writing, and that declaring a national vision was never central to the rapid development of a political structure. The National Goals and Directive Principles were made to look like a collective indigenous vision, but they emerged from foreign ideas, theory and practice and were used by an educated elite obsessed with and overwhelmed by the rush to take over political and economic power. There was no long-term national vision merely the continuation of the colonial order and the maintenance of borrowed, western ideas, disguised as a national discourse

Topics: Papua New Guinea, national goals, directive principles, constitution, Department of Trade and Industry and Commerce, independence
Publisher: Queensland University of Technology
Year: 2005
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.qut.edu.au:16071

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  170. (1975). 718 A number of other complex political divisions developed as a result of the CPC’s recommendations. The Pangu Party representatives to the CPC were accused of making a deal with the People’s Progress Party members and some members of the United 715Momis,
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  181. (1976). 771 For example,
  182. 771Constitutional Planning Committee, Report Final 1974, op. cit., p. 9 255 forced to leave the industry when the coffee price was not favourable.
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  187. (1992). 799 A concerned Papua New Guinean wrote to the Post-Courier on
  188. (2002). 800 In another example of political leaders ignoring visions of the
  189. 806 This is a case where post-1975 governments had allowed Australian companies to continue to operate in Papua New Guinea, despite the promise of the national sovereignty and selfreliance goal to end Australia’s control of the economy.
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  200. (1974). 864 It might be expected that the 863 Constitutional Planning Committee Report,
  201. (2000). 866The department also provided advice and guidance to Provincial governments on trade, Investment, industry, and commerce and programs to mobilise indigenous groups to participate in large commercial and industrial projects.
  202. (1974). 868 Their policy 865The Constitutional Planning Committee, Final Report,
  203. 870 The Program and Performance document linked budget expenditure to the National Goals and Directive Principles and stated: “self-reliance was a central theme of the 1975-76 budget and will remain so for foreseeable future budgets”.
  204. 870National Planning Committee of National Planning Office, Programmes and Performance 1975-76, Ward Strip, Port Moresby,
  205. 871 The 1975-76 budget was aimed at direct participation in and ownership of economic activities and the promotion of self-reliance development in rural areas, which directly reflected the vision of the national sovereignty and self-reliance goal.
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  207. (2002). 882Department of Trade and Industry,
  208. (2000). 887 So in the end, despite its grand promises, Development Plan
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  210. (1974). 92Constitutional Planning Committee, Final Report,
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  213. (1974). 96 But the Nasioi people of 93Momis, J.,
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  215. a change was underway and in 1964, the Legislative Council was changed to a House of Assembly. As recommended by the SCPD and the Foot Report, indigenous members were appointed as under-secretaries.
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  249. (1964). After the oaths and swearing in of the members of the first House of Assembly, the Clerk called for the nominations of the Speaker. John Guise was elected unopposed and became the first speaker of the House of Assembly.
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  251. (1977). Agriculture in the Tropics, UPNG, Port Moresby,
  252. Also in Chpt. 4 above. 159 Party did not vigorously promote the idea of a Presidential system after it won the 1972 elections.
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  254. (2000). Altered states: globalisations, sovereignty, and governance,
  255. Although the thesis does not address the problem of why the National Goals and Directive Principles were not implemented after 1975, it is instructive to begin by 28Ibid.,
  256. (1973). Although the visions were appropriate and relevant for Papua New Guinea, they were not derived from a unified national dream or vision expressed in public discussions and debates. For example, Julius Chan wrote to
  257. (1974). An 8–Point Plan For Prosperity”, in Pacific Islands Monthly,
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  259. (1976). An Ordinary Saturday: when self-government came"..,
  260. (1998). Analysing Public Policy,
  261. Andrew Peacock (Liberal member for Kooyong) informed the members of the House that an election in the Territory had been held in February-
  262. (1972). Andrew Peacock made a statement to the Liberal Party in the Bowman electorate of Brisbane proclaiming that the Territory of Papua and New Guinea
  263. (1964). Annual Reports, Division of District Administration Report, Government Printer Kieta.
  264. (2000). Anon, “Academic: Goals are not fulfilled”,
  265. (2002). Another department policy document, the National Development Strategy in 1976, was also linked to the Eight Aims and National Goals and Directive Principles, specifically the vision of the national sovereignty and self
  266. (1922). Argonauts of the Western Pacific: An Account of Native Enterprise
  267. (1963). Arts of the South Pacific,
  268. (1973). As self-government was approaching, members of the House of Assembly were strengthening their regional groupings, party memberships and beginning to form alliances. Forced by the cohesiveness of the United Party, 381Post Courier,
  269. Asmarshi and Good had predicted that in a bid to access the global cash economy, Papua New Guinea leaders could Social Straification: an analysis of output by sex education and social stratification in Papua New Guinea”,
  270. (1976). Assessment Report on Foreign Policy by Minister for Defence, Foreign Relations and Trade to the House of
  271. (1976). Assessment Report on Foreign Policy by Minister for Defence, Foreign Relations and Trade to the House of Assembly,
  272. (1975). At 10.25 am,
  273. (1975). at 5.11 p.m., Australia’s colonialism was terminated.
  274. (1974). At the end of February 1973, the CPC produced its first draft for discussion. These were tentative recommendations intended to provoke discussion rather than stand as a final policy.
  275. (2002). At the international level, the same could be said of Papua New
  276. (1969). Australia and Colonial Question at the United Nations,
  277. (1949). Australia and New Guinea to the Establishment of the British Protectorate”, 1884,
  278. (1998). Australia and the Pacific Islands in the 20th Century, Australia Scholarly Publishing,
  279. (1970). Australia in Papua New Guinea,
  280. (1998). Australia in the Pacific Islands, Australian Scholarly Publishing,
  281. (1965). Australia, Report to The General Assembly of the United Nations, op. cit.; The World Bank, Report,
  282. (1973). Australia's New Guinea Question, Australian Institute of International Affairs,
  283. (1956). Australia's Task in Papua New Guinea, Australian Institute of International Affairs,
  284. (1973). Australian aid for education in the Pacific, National Centre for Development Studies,
  285. (1970). Background to The House of Assembly”,
  286. (1972). Balancing Educational and Economic Goals in Melanesia”,
  287. (1978). balancing national interest against the need to keep the mine going and ensure the interests of local people were protected.
  288. (1990). Basics of Qualitative Research: grounded theory procedures and techniques, Sage Publications,
  289. (1976). Beazley asked Hasluck whether the Australian government intended to preceed with the establishment of a National Parliament for the joint Territories of Papua and New Guinea. Paul Hasluck dodged the answer by replying that the “spirit of 423 Hasluck,
  290. (1992). Because the World Bank controlled Papua New Guinea’s right to use 850Papua New Guinea,
  291. (1995). Bewitching Women: Gender and Body Politics in
  292. (1976). Black Nationalism in Africa, Sound Recording: The last 20 Years,
  293. (1985). Bougainville To Vanimo: Negotiating To Achieve National Goals",
  294. (1970). Bougainville, a chronicle of just grievances”,
  295. (1973). Bougainville; A Personal History,
  296. (1997). Bougainville: Blood on our hands; Australia's role in Papua New Guinea's War;
  297. (1971). Bougainville: Not Discovered By CRA”:
  298. (1985). Building On Melanesian Foundations: Viles Tok Ples Skul in the
  299. (1969). Bureau of Statistics, Summary of population, Population Census
  300. (1995). But it was the Western-educated elite who had experienced the brunt of the colonial policies and it was this group that engineered the self-determination process
  301. (1972). But when the House of Assembly resumed on 4
  302. (1974). Calm after storm over PNG Constitution” in Pacific Islands Monthly,
  303. (2004). Canberra; Constitutional Planning Committee,
  304. (1998). Capitalism And Nationalism At The End Of The Empire: State and Business in Decolonising Egypt, and Nigeria 1945-1963,
  305. (1985). Capitalism in Papua New Guinea: development or underdevelopment”,
  306. (2000). Carving a New Nation", 25th Anniversary Magazine, Papua New Guinea Walking Together 1975-200,
  307. (1980). Caught Up”,
  308. (1980). Caught Up”, Wendt, A., (ed) Nuanua; Pacific Writing in English since
  309. (1971). census recorded the urban population of Port Moresby as 59,563, Lae 32,077, Rabaul 22,393, Goroka 3,544, and Mt. Hagen 9,257.
  310. (1970). Changing Nasioi-economics: an ethnographic study, unpublished PhD. thesis,
  311. (1965). cit., 331Territory of Papua and New Guinea, House of Assembly, Debates,
  312. claimed the Labour Party took the initiative in 1959 to establish the first advisory council for native affairs, native village councils and started training public servants.
  313. (1994). Claims to statehood in international law,
  314. (1991). Collins Dictionary of Sociology,
  315. (1991). Collins Dictionary of Sociology, HarperCollins,
  316. (1971). Colonial Rule and Political development in Tanzania: the case of the Mokonde,
  317. (1976). Comments", New Guinea and Australia, the Pacific and
  318. (1987). Conducting Business in Papua New Guinea, A guide to some basic requirements of the Investment Promotion Authority, Promoting Better Business, Government Printer,
  319. (1973). Conference of District Commissioners,
  320. (1974). Confidential Memo to Constitutional Planning Committee,
  321. (1961). Constitutional Development in
  322. (1973). Constitutional Development in Papua New Guinea 1968-73: The Transfer of Executive Power”,
  323. (1973). Constitutional Development in Papua New Guinea, 1968-73: The Transfer of Executive Power”, in New Guinea Research Bulletin No.15.,
  324. (2003). Constraints on Poverty Reduction in Papua New Guinea”,
  325. (2000). Constraints On Poverty Reduction in Papua New Guinea",
  326. (1972). Creating Productive Tensions: A Priority for Melanesian Economic development”,
  327. (2000). Crime Catastrophe: Reviewing Papua New Guinea's most serious social economic problem",
  328. (1985). Cultural development since 1972”, ibid.,
  329. (1985). Cultural preservation and National Goals”,
  330. (1992). Culture and Democracy in the South Pacific,
  331. (1990). Debate in Australian parliament was generalised and abstract, concerned with more 198Turner,
  332. (1996). Decolonisation in a Modern World; Conceptual development and Practical Application”,
  333. (1999). Decolonisation: the British Experience since
  334. (1995). Democracy and Development in Southeast Asia: the winds of Change,
  335. (2002). Department of Trade. Industry and Commerce,
  336. (2000). Dependency theory and its relevance to problems of development in Papua New Guinea”, The Pacific Economic
  337. (2000). Dependency theory and its relevance to problems of development in Papua New Guinea", The Pacific Economic Bulletin.
  338. (1964). Despotism and Australian Administration in the Highlands New Guinea”,
  339. (1979). Development and Dependency: The Political Economy of Papua New Guinea,
  340. (1978). Development Bank: Annual Report and Financial Statement
  341. (1971). Development Goals in Rural Melanesia’
  342. (1971). Development Goals in Rural Melanesia",
  343. (1995). Development Theory and the Three Worlds:
  344. (1995). Development Theory and the Three Worlds: Towards and International Political Economy of Development, Longman Scientific and Technical,
  345. (1983). discussion on the five NGDPs was overlooked by a public, 639 Narokobi, B.,
  346. (1968). Discussion”,
  347. (1968). Discussion”;
  348. (1968). Discussion",
  349. Dreams Turn Sour, Interview Matthew Yuwi”, The National, 25 th Anniversary Magazine: Papua New Guinea Walking Together 1975-2000; Celebrating 25 Years of Independence, Port Moresby,
  350. (2000). During a term under the Skate Government, we instructed the Department of Attorney-General to review the Cayman Islands arrangement and report the findings to the Government. The report confirmed that in
  351. (1962). Early stages of Economic Development in New Guinea",
  352. (1968). Economic Base for An independent New Guinea, Angus and
  353. (1974). Economic Base for An Independent New Guinea”,
  354. (1999). Economic growth far short of potential,
  355. (1986). Economic Policy of Papua New Guinea; Uphill in a low gear,
  356. (1974). Economic Rights and Social Goals for Constitutional Planning Committee”,
  357. (1973). Economic Rights and Social Goals for the Constitutional Planning Committee,
  358. (1974). Economic Rights and Social Goals for the Constitutional Planning Committee”,
  359. (1974). Economic Rights and Social Goals for the Constitutional Planning Committee”, in
  360. (1974). Economic Rights and Social Goals, For the Constitutional Planning Committee”,
  361. (1974). Economic Strategy and the Eight Point Plan, unpublished address,
  362. (1965). Economic Structuralism and Its Relevance to Southern Rhodesia’s Future,
  363. (1972). Economics Before Politics: colonial Fantasy”,
  364. (1973). educated Africans initiated and set national goals aimed at the discriminatory policies, which had denied them economic and 242Territory of Papua and New Guinea,
  365. (1987). Education and Colonial Control in Papua New Guinea: A Documentary History, Longman Cheshire,
  366. (1973). Education and Elitism in Papua New Guinea, unpublished M. A, thesis,
  367. (1970). Education in Papua New Guinea, 1962-1972: A personal View”,
  368. (1968). Education Policy and Development in Australian New Guinea,
  369. (1978). Elite Ideology in Papua New Guinea",
  370. (1997). Emerging from Empire? Decolonisation in The Pacific: proceedings of a workshop at the Australian
  371. (1962). Emerging Issue
  372. (2000). Empowering Our People", 25th Anniversary Papua New Guinea Walking Together 1975-2000, 25 Years Independence,
  373. (1985). Equal participation by Women: The Role of Women's Councils at The National and provincial Level",
  374. (1985). Equal participation by women: the role of women’s council at national and provincial
  375. (1985). Equality and Participation in Melanesia”,
  376. (1985). Equality and Participation in Melanesia",
  377. (1968). Ethnic Nationalism and State power: the rise of Irish Nationalism, African Nationalism and Zionism,
  378. (1970). Ethnicity and Nationalism in Singapore,
  379. (1970). Ethnicity, Party, National Integration: An Indonesian Case study,
  380. (1994). European and English Landscapes as National Symbols”,
  381. (1968). European Attitude to Papua 1906-1914”,
  382. (1991). European Decolonisation 1918-1981: An Introduction,
  383. (1985). European Decolonisation, 1918-1981: An Introduction Survey,
  384. (2001). Executive Summary; Management Plan
  385. (2000). Explaining Institutions Failure in Melanesia”,
  386. (2000). Explaining Institutions Failure in Melanesia”, The Pacific Economic Bulletin,
  387. (1988). Facing the Facts: The need for policies for Permanent Urban Residents,
  388. (1975). Fears and fantasies: the colonised man is an envious man”,
  389. Fieldwork Photography 1915-1918,
  390. (1973). Final statement by the Minister for External Territories in the House of
  391. (1973). Finding a grass roots government”, Pacific Islands Monthly,
  392. (1974). Fitzpatrick submission to CPC as ‘Economic Rights and Social Goals” in
  393. (1968). Five Year Economic Plan 1968-73”,
  394. (2000). For A Fair World, Interview Report”,
  395. (2000). For a fair World", Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Magazine: Papua New Guinea Walking Together 1975-2000; Celebrating 25 years of Independence,
  396. (1967). For example, in 1968 a prominent Australian economist argued that Australia was quickly granting political independence to Papua New Guinea instead of building a strong economic foundation that could lead to the growth of a selfsustaining nation.
  397. (1973). For example, the CPC’s meetings held at Buka in North Solomon Province,
  398. (1968). For example, the Tolai community leaders in Rabual openly demonstrated against the Australian administration’s land policy that denied 124David,
  399. (1986). Foreign investment in Papua New Guinea: Policies and Practices, National Centre for Development Studies,
  400. (2001). Foreward Comments”,
  401. (1968). Formation of Political Parties. Several political parties were formed before
  402. (1973). Four months later,
  403. (1969). France and Africans 1944-1960: A Political History,
  404. (1995). From ANZAC Day to Remembrance Day, Remnants of Australia Rule in Papua New Guinea”,
  405. (1995). From ANZAC Day To Remembrance Day: Remnants of Australian Rule in Papua New Guinea",
  406. (1973). From Dependency to independence",
  407. (1985). From Rhetoric to Reality: Papua New Guinea’s Eight Point Plan and National Goals after a Decade.
  408. (1991). From Tribe to Nation”, History of European Ideas,
  409. (1972). From Village to State in Tanzania: the Politics of Rural Development,
  410. (1971). Games People Play: whose ethnohistory?” New Guinea and Australia, the Pacific and South-East Asia,
  411. (1978). geared at generating a market for Australian goods.
  412. (2003). Gender and development in Papua New
  413. (1998). Governance and Reform in the South
  414. (1942). Government and Nationalism in Southeast Asia, Institute of Pacific Relations,
  415. (1967). Government and Politics in Tanzania: a collection of essays covering the period
  416. (1981). Government extension Serivces and Smallholder agriculture: looking beyond 1982 to the way ahead",
  417. (1987). Greening the Conservation Movement”, in
  418. (1989). Growth structural change and economy policy in Papua New Guinea: Implications for Agriculture, National Centre for Development Studies,
  419. (1973). Guinea assumed full self-government on
  420. (1998). Guinea Country Portfolio Performance Review,
  421. (1974). Guinea Empire: Australia's Colonial Experience,
  422. Guinea fell victim to imperialism and capitalist expansion in 1884. Two European nations (England and Germany) conquered the eastern half of the island of New Guinea adding to their list of colonies in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific regions.
  423. (1998). Guinea had spent almost K400 million on imported rice and wheat,
  424. (1990). Guinea Politics and History since
  425. (1974). Guinea was losing its cultures, traditions as the result of Western cultural influence; Fatal Impact Theory; Narokobi’s Melanesian Way. John Momis “social goals” No 3,” presented on 19
  426. (1990). Guinea; The Challenge of Independence, a nation in turmoil,
  427. (1972). Guinea: Black Unity or Black Chaos?
  428. (1997). Guinea: The Struggle for Development,
  429. (1973). Guinea: The Struggle for Development.
  430. (1997). Hasluck in Australian History,
  431. He admitted that four years previously the Australian government regarded self-government and independence as a remote possibility. However, the two visits in 1969-70 and 1971 to Papua New Guinea by Gough Whitlam broke the nexus.
  432. (1999). He claimed he had 25% of his salary deducted as IRC Tax, 10 % as VAT Tax, and 1 % as bank-withdrawal tax and also had a head tax imposed. He claimed the Government was taking away 40 per cent of the income from every employee.
  433. (1971). he issued a statement authorized by the Minister for the External Territories, C.E Barnes, that the policy of the Australian government was to advance Papua New Guinea to internal selfgovernment and independence as a united country.
  434. (1988). Health in the early contact period: a contemporary example from Papua New Guinea”,
  435. (1976). Highlands: destabilising national unity?”,
  436. (1968). highlighted the fact that the Australian Administration’s five-year economic plan enabled Australian owned companies to dominate the economic activities.
  437. (1973). House of Assembly Debates,
  438. (1974). House of Assembly Debates, (Constitutional Planning Committee Final Report),
  439. (1970). House of Assembly,
  440. (1974). House of Assembly, Debate, (on Constitutional Planning Committee Report
  441. (1972). House of Assembly, Debates,
  442. (1974). House of Assembly, Debates, (Constitutional Planning Committee Final Report), I
  443. (1971). House of Assembly, Report of the Select Committee on Constitutional Planning Committee,
  444. (1974). House of Representatives Debates,
  445. (1972). House of Representatives, Debates,
  446. (1960). House of Representatives, Debates, 0ctober -
  447. (1968). Hubert Murray; the Australian pro-consul,
  448. (1995). Identities, Politics and Rights,
  449. (1971). If Papuans and New Guineans wish to move into a closer relationship with the Australian 565
  450. (1991). Imagined Communities, reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism,
  451. (1995). Imperialism Policy and Southeast Asian Nationalism 1930-1957,
  452. (1985). Implicit Values in the Social Science Curriculum: Male and Female
  453. (1985). Implicit Values in the Social Science Curriculum: Male and Female Role Models”, in
  454. (1993). Import Substitution Industrialisation as a Alternative Development Strategy for Papua New Guinea; Its Underpinnings and Appropriateness”,
  455. in 1971, the United Nations Visiting Mission that found the Territory was undeniably poor, even though the economy had begun to expand in the previous 10 years.
  456. (1962). In a direct response to the Foot Report, the Legislative Council appointed a Select Committee on Political Development (SCPD) chaired by John Gunther in
  457. (1998). In a move for citizens to participate in economic activities, the National Executive Council (NEC) approved the Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) policy on
  458. (2000). In a subsequent debate on importing rice and wheat, the Member for Kandep, Jimson Sauk, said, “We are wrongly advised by expatriates on how to grow foods. Take for instance, the Markham Valley where rice-planting trials were 822Papua New Guinea,
  459. In another example from the long-running rural development debate in Papua New Guinea,
  460. (1985). In practice this did not happen. It was meant to develop rural areas in remote parts of 273Fitzpartrick, P.,
  461. In response to this international pressure and with Australian encouragement, (see Chapter 5) the 1964 House of Assembly set up a second Select Committee on Constitutional Development (SCCD) chaired by John Guise.
  462. (1965). In Search of a Home-Grown Constitution:
  463. (1989). In Search of a Home-Grown Constitution: The Constitutional Development in Papua New Guinea Between
  464. (1989). In the House of Assembly it was suggested a revision of draft was neccessary because it proposed that investment codes should be a matter for ordinary legislation rather than
  465. (2000). in the Post-Courier for Coffee Industry Corporation 810 Anon, “Life is a struggle now for villagers”,
  466. (1951). Inauguration of the Legislative Council for the Territory of Papua and
  467. (1951). Inauguration of the Legislative Council for the Territory of Papua and New Guinea,
  468. (1970). Indigenous entrepreneurs for Papua New Guinea, United Nations Industrial Development Organisations, Port Moresby. 334
  469. (1981). Infrastructure Development”,
  470. (1988). Innovation and Intrusion; villagers and policemen in Papua New Guinea",
  471. (1964). Institutional Response to the Constitutional Goals of Environment Management in Papua New Guinea",
  472. (1998). Integrated Rural Development Programme in Papua New Guinea. External Aid and Provincial Planning,
  473. (1973). Interim Report of the Constitutional Planning Committee,
  474. (1970). Introduction of Sociology,
  475. (1970). Introduction Sociology,
  476. (1992). Introduction: The Dynamics of Liberalisation in
  477. (1982). Introduction: The Dynamics of Liberalisation in Tanzania” in
  478. (1995). Introduction”,
  479. (2003). Invention of Papua New Guinea, published on line, (rspas.anu.edu.au/melanesia,) accessed on 24
  480. (1972). It was during the third House of Assembly, elected between February and
  481. (1971). It was not until
  482. It was reviewed in the 1990s to include content knowledge relevant to Papua New Guinea and its culture.
  483. (1998). Key Concepts In Post-Colonial Studies,
  484. (1981). Keynote Address" in, Post Independence Economic Development of Papua New Guinea,
  485. (1974). Lae: Village and City,
  486. (1970). Land adjudication and registration, paper prepared by the Departmental Head for the presentation to the House of Assembly at the
  487. (1970). Land and Race in Port Moresby",
  488. (1976). Language Pidgin’s Progress”,
  489. (1989). Law and Customs
  490. (1984). Left behind in the Village: economic and social conditions in the area of high outmigration,
  491. (1969). Legislative Council Debates, Report of a Select Committee on Constitutional Development,
  492. (1962). Legislative Council, Report of a Select Committee on Constitutional Development, about changes in Legislative Council,
  493. (1974). Letter on Constitution; National Goals and Directive Principles of Policy to
  494. (1973). Letter to Momis,
  495. (1974). Letter to Royal Swedish Embassy,
  496. (1974). Letter to Royal Swedish Embassy",
  497. (1973). Letter to Somare on Proposal Date for Self-government,
  498. (1973). Letter to Somare,
  499. (1975). Letter, on Constitution to Somare, M,"
  500. (1973). Letter, Role of the Constitutional Planning Committee,
  501. (1973). Letters written by ordinary Papua New Guineans to local newspapers, the Post-Courier and The National, also expressed the hardship and 858
  502. (2000). Liberation; End of Australian Rule in Papua New Guinea”,
  503. (2000). Liberation; end of Australian Rule in Papua New Guinea",
  504. (1983). Life and Leadership in Melanesia,
  505. (1972). local government council at Kwikila voted for early self-government while the people from the interior of Rigo opposed it. Highlanders demanded that selfgovernment should be delayed but others wanted immediate self-government and independence.
  506. (1993). Lung Wichit Wathakan and the creation of a Thai identity,
  507. (1998). Malaysia: Strategy in nation building, Asian Strategy and Leadership Institution,
  508. (1998). Malinowski’s Kiriwina, Fieldwork Photography 1915-1918,
  509. (1974). Man and Development,
  510. (1960). Manam: A Melanesian Millennium,
  511. (1969). Matupit: Land, Politics and Change Among
  512. (1970). Matupit: Land, Politics and Change Among Tolai of New Britain, Australian National
  513. (1974). May 1971-December 1974",
  514. (1975). Meeting Minutes",
  515. (1972). members of the United Party in the House of Assembly tried to delay the naming of the committee members until
  516. (1960). Menzies referred to his June speech at Brighton Town Hall in Melbourne as “good common sense”.
  517. (1960). Menzies told the United Nations General Assembly that Australia would not abandon its responsibilities to the Territory of Papua and New Guinea, because it would be almost a criminal act.
  518. (1974). Michael Somare made a bold move in
  519. (1995). Ministerial Memoir: Papua New Guinea’s Transition to
  520. (1995). Ministerial: Papua New Guinea’s Transition to Independence”,
  521. (1994). Modern Nationalism,
  522. (1974). Momis presented the idea as a set of social goals in
  523. (1973). Money, Motivation and Cash Cropping",
  524. (1973). Morrison introduced the
  525. (1973). Morrison made a final statement on self-government on
  526. (1974). Morrison stated during an interview in ‘New Accent’ that Papua New Guinea was virtually independent, even through at the same time, the CPC in Port Moresby was still negotiating its way through submissions, meetings and drafts.
  527. (1994). Movements in Melanesia,
  528. (1998). My Gun. My Brother: the World of the Papua New Guinea Colonial Police 1920-1960,
  529. (1976). Nakikus noted there was no specific mention of equal participation of women in the National Development Strategy
  530. Narokobi, an architect of the NGDPs, also analysed the vision behind the NGDPs. He had been the only participant to under-take this type of review.
  531. (1999). Nation and Identity,
  532. (1996). Nation Formation; Towards a theory of Abstract Community,
  533. (1984). Nation State and international system: The World-system
  534. (1985). National Goals and the Future of the University Education in Papua New Guinea"
  535. (1985). National goals and the future of university education in Papua New
  536. (1985). National Goals and the Future of University education in Papua New Guinea”,
  537. (1974). National Planning Committee of Cabinet,
  538. (1980). national sovereignty and self-reliance goal.
  539. (1991). Nationalism and Ethnicity,
  540. (1993). Nationalism and The State,
  541. (1991). Nationalism Identity and its defenders: Thailand 1939-1989,
  542. (1997). Nationalism,
  543. (1977). Nations and States, An Enquiry into the Origin of Nations and the Politics of Nationalism,
  544. (1982). Nations before Nationalism,
  545. (1982). Nations before Nationalism, UMI Books on Demand,
  546. (1974). Natural Resources and Environment” submission on 19
  547. (1998). Natural Resources, Nasioi Society and the Colonial and Post Colonial State in Papua New Guinea: The Mining and the Undermining or
  548. (1998). Natural Resources, Nasioi Society and the Colonial and Post Colonial State in Papua New Guinea: The Mining and the Undermining or Resource Sovereignty and Resource Development
  549. (1968). Nauru Phosphate negotiation",
  550. (1970). Nauru Phosphate negotiations”:
  551. (1992). Nauru; Environment Damage Under International Trusteeship,
  552. (1976). Neo-colonialism and Independence: Papua New Guinea’s Economic Relations with Australia and Japan,
  553. (1974). New Guinea Empire; Australia’s Colonial Experience,
  554. (1971). New Guinea Government; An Introduction, Angus and
  555. (1970). New Guinea Nationalism and The Writing of History",
  556. (1963). New Guinea Political future”,
  557. (1969). New Guinea Problems,
  558. (1968). New Guinea: Future Indefinite? Angus and
  559. (1973). New Guinea: Problems and Prospects, Cheshire, published for the Australian Institute of International Affairs,
  560. (1964). New Guinea's First Election: Background”,
  561. (1999). News and Views on the Pacific Islands",
  562. (1980). Nuanua; Pacific Writing in English since 1980,
  563. (1974). Nyerere and Nkrumah,
  564. Oala Oala-Rarua claimed that Australian citizenship had no real value in practice.
  565. (1973). of East Anglia: Overseas Development Group,
  566. (1975). Office of Village Development Task Force,
  567. (1992). On Sovereignty: four chapters from the six books of the Commonwealth,
  568. (1973). only 5% lived in Port Moresby, 6% in small towns and 89% lived in the rural areas.
  569. (1976). op, cit,
  570. (1980). op. cit.,
  571. (1972). op. cit., p 78; Woolford,
  572. (1980). op. cit., p. 141. 191 broadening village level and general political development; and at the 2nd Waigani Seminar in 1968 they were cited as the cause for a great change.
  573. (1975). op. cit., p. 149. 173 Whitlam, Morrison and Somare, the man tipped to become the first Chief Minister of Papua New Guinea, met on friendly terms in Canberra on
  574. (1980). op. cit., p. 236; 557Territory of Papua and New Guinea, Legislative Council, Debates on Report of A Select Committee on Political Development,
  575. (2003). op. cit., p.3. 305Territory of Papua and New Guinea,
  576. (1973). op., cit.,
  577. (1976). op.cit.,
  578. (1988). opportunities for female students at Goroka Teachers College in 1987; student perceptions”,
  579. (1995). Origin of the Constructivism Theory of Nation,
  580. (1965). over a month later, on
  581. (1973). Overseas Development Group, University of East Anglia Press, Port Moresby,
  582. (1968). p 1; Wolfers,
  583. (1972). p. 1; Sydney Morning Herald,
  584. (1960). p. 2; Minister for External Territories,
  585. (1973). p. 2; Personal Communication,
  586. (1972). p. 3, The First Interim Report of Constitutional Planning Committee 1973, op. cit., pp.3-7; Personal Communication with Ley John,
  587. (2002). p. 3. 276 by shareholders interested in profit-making. 841 Rabbie Namaliu’s opinion was that sovereignty was always fragile when the international community led by the World Bank imposed tough conditions.
  588. (1974). p. 6;
  589. (1969). p.1;
  590. p.1307. 155 members continued the Liberal/Country Party line that independence for the Territory must not come at excessive speed but there should be sound progress towards that goal.
  591. (1973). p.1426; Statement made by the Minister for External Territories in Australian Parliament,
  592. (1984). Papua New Guinea Affairs, ideas, and the Arts", Bikmaus,
  593. Papua New Guinea invited foreign companies to invest in the agriculture sector. They were required to invest in large-scale operations, with an emphasis on joint ventures.
  594. (1990). Papua New Guinea The Challenge of Independence: A nation in Turmoil,
  595. Papua New Guinea was traditionally composed of fiercely self-reliant and independent tribes and clans. However, after contact with the Western world and 28 years of independence,
  596. (1989). Papua New Guinea: A century of colonial
  597. (1972). Papua New Guinea: Australian Policy Review”, Current Affairs Bulletin,
  598. (1978). Papua New Guinea: Its Economic Situation and Prospects for Development, World Bank,
  599. (1972). Papua New Guinea: the emergent state”,
  600. (1985). Papua New Guinea: the first 100 years,
  601. (1973). Papua New Guinea: The Land and the People, The Jacaranda Press,
  602. (1975). Papua New Guinea: The New Elite”, Australia and New Zealand
  603. (1987). Papua New Guinea: Which Way? Theory and Politics, Social Democracy and the New Populism",
  604. (1981). Papua New Guinea's Post Independence development,
  605. (1976). Papua New Guinea’s Politics and their Implications for Australia”, in
  606. (1981). Papua New Guinea’s Prehistory: an introduction, UPNG, Port Moresby.
  607. (1995). Parado of Mahathirism: An Intellectual Biography of Mahathir Mohamad,
  608. (1970). Parao had financial and moral support from the European community in the Highlands region and was able to fly around the country to campaign against early self-rule.
  609. (1965). Parliament of a thousand tribes; a study of
  610. (1976). Parties and Parliament in
  611. (1976). Parties and Parliament in Papua New Guinea 1964-1975, two Studies,
  612. (1983). Pathway to Independence, Artlook Books,
  613. (1972). Peacock the newly appointed Minister for External Territories made a statement to the Liberal Party in the Bowman electorate of Brisbane in
  614. (1971). Perceptual Impediments to Development: Insights from Social Psychology”,
  615. (1972). Persistent Poverty: Underdevelopment in Plantation Economic of the Third World,
  616. (1985). Planning for Women's Advancement in Papua New Guinea",
  617. (1985). Planning for Women’s Advancement
  618. (1976). Planning in Small Dependent Economies: A case Study of Papua New Guinea”, Seminar on Planning
  619. (1972). Policy-Making in a New State:
  620. Policy-Making in a New State: Papua New Guinea 1972-77,
  621. (1975). Political corruption: the Ghana Case,
  622. (1987). Political Decentralisation in A New State: the experience of Provincial Government in
  623. (1978). Political Development: A Plea For Lateral Thought”,
  624. (1992). Political Economy of Growth and Stagnation in
  625. (1988). Political Ideologies, An Australian Introduction,
  626. (1992). Political Ideologies: An Introduction,
  627. (1971). Political Organisation Among the Northern Abelam; Environment and Cultural Setting”,
  628. (1967). Political Parties in Developing Countries”,
  629. (1968). Political Progress in Papua and New Guinea”,
  630. (1967). politicians began to demand for rapid political advancement. For example, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Territory of Papua and New Guinea, Sir Allan Harbury Mann.
  631. (1967). Politics and the House: ' I thought government just happened…"
  632. (1982). Politics in Melanesia:
  633. (2002). Port Moresby 789Papua New Guinea,
  634. (2004). Port Moresby,
  635. (1974). Port Moresby, p 2; Territory of Papua and New Guinea, House of Assembly, Debates,
  636. (1972). Port Moresby, p. 1, see also
  637. (1973). Port Moresby, p. 10. The Post Courier noted “A major part of the work of the Committee has been to determine the views of the people of the country on the kind of government they believe will be suitable to meet their needs”.
  638. (1973). Port Moresby, p.14; Anon, “New Guinea names dates”, in Pacific Islands Monthly,
  639. (1983). Power, Sovereignty and Discipline”,
  640. (1974). Preamble, the all just God”,
  641. (1974). Presented to CPC meeting by John Momis on 19
  642. (1972). Press Conference, Labour and Papua New Guinea, Selected Policy Statements on
  643. (1975). Press Statement: Take over Government",
  644. (1968). Priorities in Development: Why not clothing, future, brick and assembly industries",
  645. (1978). Problem of Management in a Developing Environment: the case of Tanzania, State Enterprise between
  646. (1966). Problems of Government: think of a number",
  647. (1985). Progress in promoting equality of educational opportunity for women",
  648. (1975). Promotion Authority, Conducting Business in Papua New Guinea, A guide to some basic requirements of the Investment Promotion Authority, Promoting Better Business,
  649. (1973). Proposal on Economic Rights and constitution to CPC,
  650. (2000). Proud to be Free", Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Magazine: Papua New Guinea Walking Together 1975-2000; Celebrating 25 years of Independence,
  651. (1976). Provincial Government in Papua New Guinea; Early Lessons from Chimbu,
  652. (1973). Public service pay and localisation policy”, in
  653. (1973). Public Service Pay and Localisation policy”, in Clunies,
  654. (1973). Public service pay and localization policy” in Clunies Ross
  655. (1983). Qualitative Methodology,
  656. (1989). Queensland Labour Trade and the Annexation in 1883”,
  657. (1997). Questing Development Impact: Why So Rich Yet So Poor? Discussion Papers, Department of Finance and Planning, Government of PNG.
  658. (1975). Race Relations and Colonial Rule in
  659. Rau’s expression repeated the 1972-75 fears stated in the third goal. The National Goals and Directive Principles were supposed to have controlled companies operating in Papua New Guinea, which were importing food such as broccolis, cabbages and potatoes.
  660. (1978). Regional inequality in Papua New Guinea: some new evidence”,
  661. replied that the process of transferring power had commenced in 1970 at the time Liberal Party was in government. Peacock claimed in Parliament that Labour should not receive all the credit.
  662. (1974). Reply Letter from Consul General Office",
  663. (1964). Report of the Chief Electoral Officer on the House of Assembly Election,
  664. (1968). Report of the Chief Electoral Officer, House of Assembly Election
  665. (1973). Report on Development Strategies For Papua New Guinea, the International Bank for Reconstruction
  666. (1971). Report on the Territory of Papua
  667. (1968). Report on the Territory of Papua and New Guinea, Programmes and Policies For the Economic Development of Papua New Guinea, Department of External Territories, Port Moresby,
  668. (1973). Report to the General Assembly of the United Nations,
  669. (1973). Report to The General Assembly of the United Nations;
  670. (1973). Role of the Constitutional Planning Committee,
  671. (1989). Rural Development Planning in Papua New Guinea: a rapid appraisal of agricultural problems in Maprik sub-district,
  672. (1977). Rural Improvement Programme: does it Improve Access?
  673. (1977). Rural Improvement Programme: does it Improve Access?,
  674. (1975). Sana, An Autobiography, Nuigini Press, Port Moresby,
  675. (1975). Sana: An Autobiography,
  676. (1945). Second Reading Speech of the
  677. (1972). Select Policy Statements on Papua New Guinea,
  678. (2001). Selection from Nationality”
  679. (1972). September-December”,
  680. (1974). Shaping the Future: Papua New Guinea Personalities,
  681. (1972). Shaping the Future: Papua New Guinea Personalities, Kristen Pres,
  682. (1978). Similar ideas were expressed in
  683. (2002). Sixteen years later the Department of Trade, Industry and Commerce stated its mission. In
  684. (1989). Social Alternatives: Trouble in Paradise",
  685. (1968). Social and Political Assumption”,
  686. (1968). Social and Political Assumptions”,
  687. (1966). Social Change and Social Movements”,
  688. (1958). Social Change,
  689. (1974). Social Goals for the Constitutional Planning Committee”,
  690. (1974). Social Goals presented by John Momis at the
  691. (1975). Socio-economic indicators applied in subdistricts of Papua New Guinea"' Yagl-Ambu, Papua New Guinea Journal Of the Social science and Humanities,
  692. (1975). Socio-economic indicators applied to subdistricts of Papua New Guinea”, Yagl-Ambu, Papua New Guinea
  693. (1975). Somare reacted characteristically by 374Somare, M.,
  694. (1971). Some indigenous views of the social and economic development of Papua and
  695. (1977). Some Observation on the Political Economy of Papua New Guinea: Recent Performance and Future Prospects”,
  696. (1963). Some Obstacles to the Economic Development of Papua New Guinea”, in Australian Outlook: Journal the Australian Institute of International Affairs,
  697. (1963). Some Obstacles to the Economic Development of Papua New Guinea", Australian OutLook,
  698. (1998). Southeast Asia Identities and cultural and the politics of representation
  699. (1973). Speech by the Prime Minister, the
  700. (1974). Speech on Constitutional Planning Committee Final Report,
  701. (1985). Standing By Our Principles in Tough Times”, in
  702. (1985). Standing by Our Principles in Tough Times",
  703. (1990). State and Society: Indonesia Studies in Nation Building,
  704. (1974). Statement on behalf of the Constitutional Planning Committee,
  705. (1974). Statement on behalf of the Constitutional Planning Committee",
  706. (1972). Statement on the Establishment of a Constitutional Planning Committee, 23,
  707. (1972). Statement on the Establishment of a Constitutional Planning Committee”, in
  708. (1974). statement surprised and confused expatriates and indigenous people in the Territory of Papua and New Guinea. On July 13 400Todd, I.,
  709. (1970). Steps Towards Self-Government in Papua New Guinea: unpublished speech by the Prime Minister, John Gorton at Papua Hotel, Port Moresby.
  710. (1974). Strategies for Nationhood; Policies and Issues, Office of Planning, Port Moresby. 348 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development,
  711. (1965). Study on Sovereignty,
  712. (1973). Submission to Constitutional Planning Committee,
  713. (1982). Taim Bilong Masta: Australian Involvement with Papua New Guinea, Australian Broadcasting Commission,
  714. (1964). Tanganyika: the development of its law and constitution,
  715. (1982). Tanzania: An African Experiment,
  716. (1970). Tanzania: party transformation and economic development,
  717. (1979). Tanzania’s ujamaa villages: the implementation of a rural development strategy,
  718. (1969). Taurama Oral Sources for Study of Recent Motuan Prehistory",
  719. (1968). Ten thousand Years in a Lifetime,
  720. (1968). Ten thousand Years in a Lifetime: a New Guinea autobiography of Albert Moari Kiki,
  721. (1968). Ten thousand years in a lifetime: A New Guinea Autobiography,
  722. (1970). Territory of New Guinea, Report For 1969-70 to the General Assembly of the United Nations, Government Printer,
  723. (1969). Territory of Papua and New Guinea,
  724. (1985). that modern nations were labelled with distinctive features such as integration of ‘the mass’ through citizenship rights conceptualised within a larger ethnicity. 48 45Giddens, A.,
  725. (1941). The Abelam Tribe, Sepik District, New Guinea: A Preliminary Report",
  726. (1980). The Achievement of Independence in Papua New Guinea: the legal aspect",
  727. (1972). The actual establishment of the Committee was delayed until
  728. (1974). The Administration Charge in Africa: Essays in the theory and practice of development administration in Africa,
  729. (1984). The Annotated Constitution of PNG; Extracts from the Report of the Constitutional Planning Committee,
  730. The anti-colonialist zeal of Michael Somare,
  731. The Australian administration used the Land Ordinance of 1962 to justify its claim.
  732. (1974). the Australian Government indicated that it would make necessary amendments to the Papua New Guinea Act;
  733. (1980). The Australian Trusteeship in
  734. (1960). The Australian Trusteeship,
  735. The Bill in 1960 made provision to build up the Legislative Council to become a representative organ.
  736. (1966). The Bill was to accommodate the Select Committee’s recommendation that membership should be increased from sixty-four to ninety-four.
  737. (2004). The Bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Mission of Papua New Guinea, Bishop Zurenwe, suggested Christianity be recognised and 668Personal Communication,
  738. (1998). The Cairns Conservatory owner was also involved in negotiations with the Papua New Guinea government to build a large office complex on prime land at Waigani and the PNG Prime Minister held 75% of shares and the other 844The Ombudsman Commission,
  739. (1979). The Capitalist World Economy,
  740. The Chairman of the United Nations Mission to observe the next election in 1972 predicted that the Territory of Papua and New Guinea would be independent within four years.
  741. (1973). The charity of nations: the political economy of foreign aid,
  742. (1972). the Chief Minister announced to the House of Assembly the names of the Committee members and legal and administrative staff to assist the Constitutional Planning Committee.
  743. (1979). The Class Structure”,
  744. (1979). The Class Structure”, Amarshi,
  745. (1965). The Colonial Empires, A comparative Survey from the Eighteenth Century,
  746. (2004). the Committee made a bold 676
  747. The conclusion in Chapter Eight discusses the relevance of European theories -Imagined Community, Development and Dependency theory - to the decolonising experience in Papua New Guinea and reviews the complex origin of a national vision
  748. (1978). The Constitution of Papua New Guinea: A Study in Legal Nationalism,
  749. (1975). The Constitution of the Independent
  750. (1980). The Constitution Planning Committee, "Extracts from the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania",
  751. (1973). The Constitutional Planing Committee, First Interim Report
  752. (1972). The Constitutional Planning Committee,
  753. (1980). The Constitutional Planning Committee, “Meeting Minutes held at East
  754. (1980). The Constitutional Planning Committee, “Meeting Minutes on Preamble, all just God”,
  755. (1973). The Constitutional Planning Committee, 25,
  756. (1974). The Constitutional Planning Committee, Final Report
  757. (1974). The Constitutional Planning Committee, Report
  758. (1973). The Constitutional Planning Committee, Second Interim Report,
  759. (1996). The Construction of Nationhood, Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism,
  760. (1971). The Context of Political Change”,
  761. (1962). the Cook Islands
  762. (1973). The CPC made two interim Reports, both tabled in the House of Assembly, the first in
  763. The CPC took its work very seriously, attending more than 200 meetings around the country. There was some manipulation of the CPC draft but the constitution of Papua New Guinea was formally adopted on 17
  764. (1974). The CPC was directed to submit two interim reports, and make final recommendations by
  765. (1979). The Creation of States in international law,
  766. (1980). The creation of the House of Assembly sounded the death knell for Hasluck’s across - the - board Uniform Development Policy, in which he rejected ideas that selected indigenous personnel would be trained to form an elite of 434Downs, I.,
  767. (2004). The Decolonisation of Papua New Guinea”, unpublished paper Hindsight: A Workshop for participants in the Decolonisation of Papua
  768. (1973). The deputy Chairman of the CPC, John Momis, stated on
  769. (1973). The deputy chairman of the CPC, John Momis, submitted a hand written paper called ‘Social Goals’ under nine grand headings: Liberation and Fulfilment, Independence and Self-Reliance,
  770. (1985). The Development Dilemma: self-reliance and dependence",
  771. (1965). The Development of Legislature, the Legislative Council”
  772. (1965). The Development of Legislature, the Legislative Council”,
  773. (1974). The discussion, drafting and approval of the five National Goals and Directive Principles in the Constitution occurred over a 3 months period.
  774. (1973). The dispute also questioned the nature of advice Somare was receiving from Australian departmental officers.
  775. (1988). The Dobama Movement in Burma
  776. (1972). The drafting of a Constitution was essential before the Territory of Papua and New Guinea could become an independent state.
  777. (1962). The Economic Development of Papua and New Guinea”,
  778. (1965). The Economic development of the Territory of Papua New
  779. (1975). The Economic Development of the Third World since
  780. (1968). the economist, Fisk warned against the manner and degree of Australia’s premature granting of political independence because in the colonial period there was an absence of the appropriate economic policies.
  781. (1962). The Economy of Papua and New Guinea”,
  782. (1988). The Economy of Papua New Guinea: An independent Review, Pacific Policy Papers,
  783. (1985). The economy of Papua New Guinea: an independent review: a report to the government of
  784. (1971). The Economy of Papua New Guinea: Projections and Policy issues,
  785. (1999). The Economy of Papua New Guinea",
  786. (1968). The economy: the development of peripheral capitalism”,
  787. (1985). The Eight Aims, Development And Decentralisation: The Morobe Experience”,
  788. (1985). The Eight Aims, development and Decentralisation: the Morobe Experience",
  789. (1976). The Emergence Of Modern Africa, Holt Rinehart and
  790. (1968). The Emerging Political Parties in Papua and New Guinea",
  791. (1992). The End of Sovereignty? The Politics of a Shrinking and Fragmenting World,
  792. (1968). The Establishment of Local Government in the Northern District",
  793. (1987). The ethnics of development: women as unequal partners",
  794. The Faber Report noted in 1973 that foreigners owned and controlled the export economy, a real obstacle to the Territory of Papua New Guinea becoming economically independent.
  795. (1990). The Failure of The Centralised State: Institution and selfgovernance in Africa,
  796. (1998). The fatal decision in
  797. (1966). The Fatal Impact; The brutal and Tragic Story of how the South Pacific was ‘civilised’ 1767-1840,
  798. (1965). the first House of Assembly set up the 549Territory of Papua and New Guinea,
  799. (1985). The five National Goals and Directive Principles represented a reaction to colonial rule and a desire to ensure that development after independence would
  800. (1985). The Foreign Policy White Paper of 1981: A critique”,
  801. (1985). The Foreign Policy: The White Paper 1981, A Critique”,
  802. (1985). The Foreign Policy: The white Paper 1981; A critique",
  803. (1994). The Forest industry and state policy in Papua New Guinea: a review,
  804. (1973). The formal processess directly led to the Territory of Papua and New Guinea’s progress towards achieving self-government in
  805. (2000). The former Prime Ministers Paias Wingti and Bill Skate blamed each other for the political, socio-economic problems faced by Papua New Guinea during their terms. The National, 11 th
  806. (1981). The Framework of Economic Policy-Making”,
  807. (1962). The Future in Papua and New Guinea: Defence, SelfDetermination, Government Printer,
  808. (1993). The General Equilibrium Model of
  809. (1992). The Geography of Papua New Guinea”,
  810. (1994). The German idea of Militarism: radical and socialist critics, 1866-1914,
  811. (1988). the government had shifted its focus to develop other sectors of the economy through the Small and Medium Enterprises policy.
  812. (1989). The Green Peace Story, Child and Associates,
  813. (1972). The holding of a joint constitutional conference between Australia and Papua New Guinea in
  814. (1969). The Hot Land: focus on
  815. (1973). the House of Assembly declared that a set of Eight Aims would be a cornerstone for future economic planning and an instant government sponsored
  816. (1974). The House of Assembly expanded its regional seats, rejected the name Nuigini and adopted Papua New Guinea and the current flag, after a rambling and impassioned debate which,
  817. (1971). The House unanimously adopted the Committee’s recommendation for an increased membership in the second House of 576Territory of Papua and New Guinea,
  818. (1974). The idea that Papua New Guinea should be a free society was another “seen abroad” concept. The concept of 705 Constitutional Planning Committee,
  819. (1997). The Impact of Foreign Aid on Papua New Guinea”, Economic Briefing papers,
  820. (1971). The Impact of National Institutions on Village Communities”;
  821. (1971). The Impact of National Institutions on Village Communities”; in
  822. (1962). The Independence of Papua New Guinea, What are the Prerequisites? Angus and
  823. (1960). The Labour member for Hindmarsh, Clyde Cameron, congratulated his colleague for highlighting the United Nations Trusteeship Committee’s criticism of Australia, and argued that “nothing would be more 416Australia, House of Representatives,
  824. the Labour Party won the Australian national election.
  825. (1976). The language and phrases used in the White Paper can be traced directly to the national sovereignty and self-reliance goal, as the vision was still fresh and the government was following the advice set out in 1975. 752Central Planning Office,
  826. (1975). The Law: colonial fraud”, New Guinea and Australia, the Pacific and South-
  827. (1961). the Legislative Council’s membership was increased. The new membership comprised the 288Nelson, H.,
  828. (1972). The main terms of reference for the Select Committee on Political Development in 1962 was to report in detail any changes that Melbourne
  829. (1985). The Making and Unmaking of the Eight Aims",
  830. (1943). The Making of Modern New Guinea: Culture Contact in the Mandated Territory,
  831. (1975). The Making of the New Guinea
  832. (2002). the management team was not conscious of the national sovereignty and self-relinace goal and did not associate its policies and decisions with the pillars of the National Goals and Directive Principles.
  833. (1970). The Mataungan Association and the need for political organisation for greater indigenous economic development",
  834. (1969). The Matungan Affair: the first radical mass political movement”,
  835. (1996). The Melanesian Fascinations, McAuley and PNG,
  836. (1983). The Melanesian Way,
  837. (2000). the member for West Sepik province, Michael Tekwie, introduced the Industrialisation Development Plan in his role as Minister for Trade and Industry. This plan encapsulated and built on all past industrial development policies such as: the
  838. the Minister for External Territories introduced the Territory of Papua and New Guinea Act
  839. (1985). The Modern Elite in Papua New Guinea 1945-75”,
  840. (1985). The Modern Elite in Papua New Guinea”,
  841. (1985). The Modern Elite in Papua New Guinea”, in
  842. (1985). The Nation-State and Violence, A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism,
  843. (2004). The national coalition government, led by the Chief Minister Michael Somare proposed a public forum should be used to canvass ideas about the 597Personal Communication,
  844. (1974). the National Goals and Directive Principles were tabled by the CPC. The gap between the CPC’s vision and that of the ordinary citizens was glossed over.
  845. (1915). The Natives of Mailu: Preliminary Results of the Robert Mand Research Work in British New Guinea",
  846. (1915). The Natives of Mailu”,
  847. (1976). The Need for a Cultural Programme: Personal Reflections”,
  848. (1994). The New World Order and the Pacific Islands”, Han-Martin
  849. (1996). The New World Order: Sovereignty, Human Rights, and the self- determination of people,
  850. (1963). The Nigerian Constitution: History and development, Sweet and Maxwell,
  851. The Ombudsman Commission of PNG, 1999, Final Report, Investigation into the Purchase of the Conservatory, Cairns by the public officers Superannuation Funds Board and Associated Transaction and Arrangements, Government Printer,
  852. The Ombudsman Commission Report 1982, Corruption in Government, Government Printer,
  853. (1998). The Ombudsman Commission,
  854. (1969). The Organic Law on Provincial Government provided for the establishment of 19 133Crowley, D., “Bougainville Copper”,
  855. (1997). The Pacific Way; A Memoir,
  856. (1968). The Pangu Party’s radical position to push for early independence after the second House of Assembly election in 1968 coincided with Australia’s new policy of granting self-determination and the passing of a Bill in
  857. (1961). The Pangu Pati, led by Somare in Papua New Guinea, responded in the same way. The immediate objective of TANU party in Tanzania was to attain self-government, which was achieved in
  858. (1992). The Papua New Guinea economy: Prospect for recovery, reform and sustained growth, Australian Government Publication,
  859. (1993). The Papua New Guinea economy: prospects or Sectoral Development and Broad based Growth, Government of Australia,
  860. (1993). The Papua New Guinea economy: prospects or Sectoral Development and Broad based Growth, Perrie Printers.
  861. (1979). The Political
  862. (1967). The Political Future of Papua New Guinea”,
  863. (1950). The Political System of the Ngarawapum";
  864. (1994). The Politics of a Nation Building and Citizenship in Singapore,
  865. (1971). The politics of dependence:
  866. (1970). The Politics of Melanesia; Papers delivered at the fourth Waigani Seminar,
  867. (1991). The Politics of Nationalism
  868. (2000). the Post-Courier claimed that the concentration of economic and social development in urban centres had caused rural stagnation and caused rural migration.
  869. (1973). the Post-Courier reported the formation of the Eastern Highlands District liaison committee to assist with the work of the CPC. The committee consisted of 25 members, the majority of them indigenous.
  870. (2000). The primary objective of Industrial Plan
  871. (1972). The proposal to establish the CPC was approved by the House of Assembly after two days of debate on
  872. (1976). The Provincial Government Debate: Central control Versus Local participation in Papua New Guinea,
  873. (2003). The question of foreign ownership was a continuing problem. In
  874. (1978). The question of rural development resurfaced again in 1999 when the Opposition Leader, Bill Skate, stated that 30 foreign consultants had designed 819Papua New Guinea,
  875. (1975). The Rabual Strike
  876. (1996). The rise and fall of the development theory, James Currey Ltd,
  877. (1975). The role of Foreign investment in Papua New Guinea with specific reference to the Brewing industry,
  878. (1985). The Role of the Department of Community and Family Service in Women’s Advancement”,
  879. (1985). The role of the Department of Community and Family services in Women Advancement",
  880. (1977). the Rubber Industry produced 4,200 tonnes of rubber; 9% came from permanent smallholder planting. The National Executive Council approved Julius Chan’s proposal for a rapid development of the rubber industry. It has not become a major agriculture export.
  881. (1998). The Sandline Affair; Politics and Mercenaries and the Bougainville crises,
  882. (1968). The SCCD later concluded that people from coastal areas would 321Territory of Papua and New Guinea, Report of the Chief Electoral Officer, House of Assembly Election
  883. (1968). the SCPD and the SCCD (1964-67) were judged to have been important in 558Territory of Papua and New Guinea, House of Assembly,
  884. (1970). The second report presented on
  885. (1964). The Social and Cultural Background to the Election”,
  886. (1973). The Somare-led Coalition sponsored a motion in the third House of Assembly on full internal self-government and possibly independence, within its lifetime. 338 Somare’s motion proposed
  887. (1979). The State and Revolution in Eastern Africa: Essays",
  888. (1970). The Status of Women: no motivation…no achievement…not encouraging",
  889. (1973). The Territory of Papua and New Guinea”,
  890. (1967). The Territory of Papua New Guinea, Final Report from Select
  891. (1998). The Theory of Nationhood,
  892. (2000). The Thin Green Line: World Bank Leverage and Forest Policy Reform in
  893. The third goal of the National Goals and Directive Principles therefore evolved in reaction to this and sought to redress the situation. The vision for a nationalised, locally owned and managed economy, clearly confronted the pre-1975 colonial order.
  894. (1972). The Tolai Big Man: wanted-social revolution”, New Guinea and Australia, the Pacific and South-
  895. (1968). The Trumpet Shall Sound: a study of "cargo" cults in Melanesia, Schocken Books,
  896. (1961). the Trusteeship Council in New York announced its intention to send a visiting mission to Papua New Guinea. This mission 291Territory of Papua and New Guinea,
  897. (1969). The truths as we know them”,
  898. (1982). The Turning Point in Africa: British Colony policy 1938-48,
  899. (1969). the United Nations Development Programme report recommended a ‘Five Year Plan’ and called on Australia to spend $108.7 million on roads, $21.9 million on aviation and $21.1 on wharves and ports; a total of $157 million over five years.
  900. (1961). The United Nations Trusteeship Committee affirmed the right of indigenous people to self-determination and independence and called on Australia to take all necessary steps to transfer full 294United Nations,
  901. (1980). The United Republic of Tanzania, Extracts for Constitution, in
  902. (1998). The White Paper on Industrial Development,
  903. (1972). The Whitlam Government was reminded to speed up the creation of independent united Papua New Guinea by the Australian Governor General Sir Paul Hasluck during the opening of the 1973 507Australia, House of Representatives, Debates,
  904. (1998). The Women’s Voice
  905. The World Bank 1964, The economic development of
  906. (2002). The World Bank and IMF were actually setting the policies of the sovereign state of Papua New Guinea. The World Bank had become increasingly concerned about Papua New Guinea’s economic performance. In
  907. (1965). The World Bank Report",
  908. (2000). them become beggars on their own land.” 768 Wingti’s vision follows that of statements made by other Prime Ministers.
  909. (1995). Theories and Narratives: Reflection on the Philosophy of History,
  910. (1973). there had been little national debate on these concepts up to
  911. (1965). These ideas influenced Michael Somare and other young newly elected members of Parliament, who could see that Australia’s policies on gradual development denied
  912. (1995). these issues were seen as a burden and threat to Australia and basically changed its attitude towards
  913. (1973). They’re just trying to dump us!’
  914. (1974). this 791Constitutional Planning Committee, Report Final
  915. (1970). This Ordinance stipulated that indigenous people could dispose or lease their land to the administration in mutually acceptable terms, while the Mining Ordinance 1922-66 (section 191) stipulated that all gold and minerals in the Territory belonged J.,
  916. (1964). Thought and Change,
  917. (1971). Thoughts on the Constitution”,
  918. (1972). Thoughts On The Constitution",
  919. (1974). Three months after Fitzpatrick and Momis’s papers were discussed and debated, a draft constitution was tabled in the House of Assembly in
  920. (1978). Time Bombs in Malaysia: Problems of Nation Building Jaya Democratic Action Party, Longman Cheshire,
  921. (2000). Time to unclean the dependence mindset”, in The National,
  922. (2002). Tisa Haus, Waigani,
  923. (1973). To accommodate the impact of the Bougainville copper project the first five-year economic program was revised in 1971, but this too drew criticism. For example, Dennis Young, a member of the House of Assembly representing the Milne Bay 251Post Courier,
  924. (1973). to the General Assembly of the United Nations, Government Printer,
  925. (1969). Tolai unrest rising from land and social problems on the Gazelle Peninsula of New Britain, Report to Administration to the Administrator,
  926. (1977). Towards a Structural Perspective on the World System”,
  927. (1977). Towards a Structural Perspective on the World System”, in Politics and Society,
  928. (1971). Towards Economic Independence; Papers on Nationalisation of the Copper Industry in Zambia,
  929. (1972). Towards Self-Government, address to the Liberal party in the Bowman electorate,
  930. (1975). Trade Organisation. 1 Introduction Papua New Guinea achieved its independence on
  931. (1982). Transfer of Power in Africa: Decolonisation,
  932. (1973). Transfer of Powers to Papua New Guinea" Statement in Australian Parliament", Selected Policy Statements on
  933. (1967). Trouble in Tolailand: the shame motive",
  934. (1946). Trusteeship Agreement For the Territory of Papua
  935. (1962). Trusteeship Council, Report on New Guinea,
  936. (1962). Trusteeship Council, Report on New Guinea, Supplementary No.
  937. (1984). Two research methods were used to collect both primary and secondary data. The first method was discourse analysis of published literature. The second method was 36
  938. Two weeks later on December 29 1969, the Leader of the Australian Parliamentary Opposition Gough Whitlam, visited the Territory on a factfinding mission.
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  940. (1975). Universalism Foreign Policy, Government Printer, Waigani,
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  945. (1971). Victims of Progress: the plight of ethnic minorities in underdeveloped areas”,
  946. (1973). villages and traditional leaders in East New Britain Province announced that they were willing to talk with the CPC’s members and gave their names to the District Liaison Officer.
  947. (1973). Visiting consultants provided legal advice to the CPC at different stages, such as Roland Brown, a Fellow at the International Legal Centre of the United Nations whose services were rended in
  948. (1970). Vunamami; Economic Transformation in a Traditional Society,
  949. (1969). Wanted a Constitution: before it is too late",
  950. was asked if he was reported correctly in an address to a Junior Chamber of Commerce 440Ibid.,
  951. (2000). was treated by the Department of Trade, Industry and Commerce as a blueprint to shift Papua New Guinea from raw material exporter to net exporter of value-added 883 Maue M,
  952. (1995). Weeks argued that equal education for 772Sinclair, J.,
  953. (1972). were Judges and spent considerable time providing professional advice to the committee. The volume of international input 611Post Courier,
  954. (1987). Western Response to Tanzania Socialism 1967-1983,
  955. (1961). what was contained in the terms of the first mandate issued after the 1914-18 war remains”.
  956. (1945). when the Minister for External Territories,
  957. (1973). when the Waigani Seminar reviewed the influence of the Eight Aims, Peter Fitzpatrick noted they had emerged from colonial experience
  958. (1989). White Paper on Agriculture: National Policies for the development of the Agriculture Sub-Sector, Agriculture and Livestock Department,
  959. (1989). White Paper on Agriculture: National Policies for the development of the Agriculture SubSector, Government of Papua
  960. (1973). Whitlam at Papua New Guinea Government Dinner, Port Moresby, 18 th February 1973, op. cit.; Post Courier,
  961. (1994). Women in Development in Papua New Guinea, Economics Division Working papers: South Pacific,
  962. (1985). Women in Rural Development: An anecdotal account from the East Sepik Province",
  963. (1985). Women, education and bureaucratic leadership”,
  964. (1985). Working towards equality in Family Health Services”,
  965. (1985). Working Towards Equality in Health Services",
  966. (1968). Zambia, The Moulding of A Nation,

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