Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Reflexive optokinetic nystagmus in younger and older observers under photopic and mesopic viewing conditions

By Trevor J. Hine, Guy Wallis, Joanne M. Wood and Eftyhia P. Stavrou

Abstract

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of age on optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) in response to stimuli designed to preferentially stimulate the M-pathway. METHOD: OKN was recorded in 10 younger (32.3 +/- 5.98 years) and 10 older (65.6 +/- 6.53) subjects with normal vision. Vertical gratings of 0.43 or 1.08 cpd drifting at 5 degrees /s or 20 degrees /s and presented at either 8% or 80% contrast were displayed on a large screen as full-field stimulation, central stimulation within a central Gaussian-blurred window of 15 degrees diameter, or peripheral stimulation outside this window. All conditions apart from the high-contrast condition were presented in a random order at two light levels, mesopic (1.8 cdm(-2)) and photopic (71.5 cdm(-2)). RESULTS: Partial-field data indicated that central stimulation, mesopic light levels, and lower temporal frequency each significantly increased slow-phase velocity (SPV). Although there was no overall difference between groups for partial-field stimulation, full-field stimulation, or low-contrast stimulation, a change in illumination revealed a significant interaction with age: there was a larger decrease in SPV going from photopic to mesopic conditions for the older group than the younger group, especially for higher temporal frequency stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: OKN becomes reflexive in conditions conducive to M-pathway stimulation, and this rOKN response is significantly diminished in older healthy adults than in younger healthy adults, indicative of decreased M-pathway sensitivity

Topics: 111300 OPTOMETRY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY, 111303 Vision Science, Nystagmus, Aging
Publisher: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
Year: 2006
DOI identifier: 10.1167/iovs.06-0539
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.qut.edu.au:12009

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2002). Age effect in dynamic vision based on orientation identification. Exp Brain Res.
  2. Age-related changes in the visual cortex. Vision Res.
  3. (1998). Age-related deterioration of motion perception and detection. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol.
  4. (1995). Age-related differences in the detection of threedimensional surfaces from optic flow. Psychol Aging.
  5. Aging and the perception of speed.
  6. Aging reduces centre-surround antagonism in visual motion processing.
  7. An fMRI study of optokinetic nystagmus and smooth-pursuit eye movements in humans. Exp Brain Res.
  8. (1995). and gender as factors in twilight road fatalities.
  9. Background light and the contrast gain of primate P and M retinal ganglion cells.
  10. (1995). Changes in the lower displacement for motion with age. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt.
  11. (1987). Contrast sensitivity decline with ageing: A neural or optical phenomenon. Vision Res.
  12. Contrast sensitivity loss with aging: sampling efficiency and equivalent noise at different spatial frequencies.
  13. (1983). Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood. Vision Res.
  14. (1996). Contribution of chromatic mechanisms to the production of small-field optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) in normals and strabismics. Vision Res.
  15. (1986). Control of human optokinetic nystagmus by the central and peripheral retina: Effect of partial visual field masking, scotopic vision and central retinal scotomata. Brain Res.
  16. (1991). Does primate motion perception depend on the magnocellular pathway?
  17. Effect of aging on eye tracking.
  18. (2006). Effects of age and illumination on driving performance.,
  19. (1999). Effects of aging on calculation efficiency and equivalent noise.
  20. Employing following eye movements to discriminate normal from glaucoma subjects. Clin Exp Opthal.
  21. (1968). Experimental studies on optokinetic nystagmus: II. Normal humans. Acta Otolaryngol.
  22. (1999). Gaze orientation during full-field and peripheral passive optokinesis. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt.
  23. Human scotopic spatiotemporal sensitivity: a comparison of psychophysical and electrophysiological data. Doc Ophthalmol.
  24. (1974). Inter-saccadic interval analysis of optokinetic nystagmus. Vision Res.
  25. Intraocular light scatter in normal vision loss with age.
  26. (1990). Light adaptation in the primate retina: Analysis of changes in gain and dynamics of monkey retinal ganglion cells. Vis Neurosci.
  27. Limitations in the drivers' ability to recognise pedestrians at night. Hum Factors.
  28. (1992). Motion perception and aging. Psychol Aging.
  29. Motion perception in the ageing visual system: Minimum motion, motion coherence, and speed discrimination thresholds.
  30. (1993). Neural bases of visual deficits during aging. Vision Res.
  31. (1990). Neural contribution to spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity decline in healthy ageing eyes. Vision Res.
  32. Optokinetic nystagmus in patients with central scotomas in age related macular degeneration.
  33. (1979). Optokinetic reactions in man elicited by localized retinal motion stimuli. Vision Res.
  34. Quantitative analysis of the velocity characteristics of optokinetic nystagmus and optokinetic after-nystagmus.
  35. (1994). Quantitative assessment of influence of aging on optokinetic nystagmus. Acta Otolaryngol.
  36. Recording eye movements with videooculography and scleral search coils: a direct comparison of two methods.
  37. (1997). Responses of primate area MT during the execution of optokinetic nystagmus and afternystagmus. Exp Brain Res.
  38. (1999). Seeing into old age: Vision function beyond acuity. Optom Vis Sci.
  39. Segregation of form, color, movement, and depth: Anatomy, physiology, and perception.
  40. (1994). Senescence of human visual-vestibularinteractions: smooth pursuit, optikinetic, and vestibular control of eye movements with aging. Exp Brain Res.
  41. (1999). Senescent changes in scotopic contrast sensitivity. Vision Res.
  42. (1988). senile miosis and spatial contrast senstivity at low luminance. Vision Res.
  43. Sensitivity to changes in size and velocity in young and elderly observers.
  44. (1997). Slow eye movements. Vision Res.
  45. Spare the rods, save the cones in aging and age-related maculopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.
  46. (1963). The Aging Eye.
  47. (1998). The effect of age, retinal eccentricity, and speed on the detection of optical flow components. Psychol Aging.
  48. The effect of ageing on eye movement: A literature review.
  49. (1993). The effect of aging on visualvestibuloocular responses. Exp Brain Res.
  50. (1991). The effects of simultaneous central and peripheral field motion on the optokinetic response. Vision Res.
  51. (1984). The efficiency of the central and peripheral retina in driving human optokinetic nystagmus. Vision Res.
  52. (1985). The influence of age on optokinetic nystagmus. Eur Arch Psychiatr Neurol Sci.
  53. (1981). The influence of field size upon spatial frequency response of optokinetic nystagmus. Vision Res.
  54. (1995). Topography of the age-related decline in motion sensitivity. Optom Vis Sci.
  55. Visual sensitivity to motion: Age-related changes and deficits in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.