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Monks and markets : Durham Cathedral-Priory, 1460-1520.

By Miranda Threlfall-Holmes
Topics: History Economics
Year: 2000
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.dur.ac.uk:1534
Provided by: Durham e-Theses

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  1. 1: The Monastic Population of Durham Cathedral Priory and its 15 cells,
  2. 102 In 1504, the cellarer bought 2.5 barrels at £1.10s.0d, and 24 gallons at just over a penny each.
  3. 10Chapter
  4. 11 R.A.L.Smith, Collected Papers (London, 1947), p. 35.
  5. 117E.Ashtor, Levant Trade in the Later Middle Ages (Princeton, 1983), pp.469-70.
  6. 127S.F.Hockey, ed., The Account Book of Beaulieu Abbey (Camden Society, 4th Series, 16, 1975), p.273. 128Dobson, Durham Cathedral Priory, p.54.
  7. 137Calculated from the table in N.Morimoto, 'The Demand and Purchases of Wine of Durham Cathedral Priory in the First Half of the Fifteenth Century', Nagoya Gakuin University Review, 20 (1983), p.101.
  8. 144 DCM Cellarer's a/c, 1449/50, Month 11 (week commencing 15th March 1450).
  9. 145 DCM Cellarer's a/c, 1449/50, Month 9 (week commencing 10th January 1450).
  10. 148 For wheat, the mode price was the only price in 1462/3, 1465/6, 1467/8, 1470-5, 1478-82, 1484-8, 1492-1501, 1503/4, 1506/7 and 1508-11. Years in which there was a single exceptional price were 1468/9, 1504/5, 1506/7 and
  11. 149An Italian reporting on England in c.1500 specifically noted that `few people keep wine
  12. 152 N.S.B.Gras, The Evolution of the English Corn Market from the Twelfth to the Eighteenth Century (New York, 1915, reissued 1967), p.37; Dyer, Standards of Living, pp.55-7. 11312— 8— 6— 4— • •
  13. 156noble of his standing. 197 On the other hand, the extremely wide price-range for such things is shown by the purchase by the Durham cell at Monk Wearmouth in 1468/9 of 60 ells of linen 'for sheets, napkins and long handtowels', at only 3d.
  14. 167C.Verlinden, ed., Documents pour l'histoire des prixs et des salaires en Flandres et en Brabant, doi
  15. 16The scale of the administrative task faced by the monks
  16. 17J.Raine, ed., The Durham Household Book: or, The Accounts of the Bursar of the Monastery of Durham, from Pentecost 1530 to Pentecost 1534 (Surtees Society, 18, 1844), p.viii.
  17. 18Dobson, Durham Cathedral Priory, p.287. 20even these divided responsibilities, and complaints were voiced that the experiment simply tripled administrative overheads for no gain. In 1445 the old system was reinstated by
  18. 195 DCM Bursar's account, ('necessary expenses' section), 1507/8.
  19. 196 DCM Bursar's account, ('necessary expenses' section), 1508/9.
  20. 198 J.Raine, ed., The Inventories and Account Rolls of the Benedictine Houses or Cells of Jarrow and Monk- Wearmouth in the County of Durham (Surtees Society, 29, 1854), p.211.
  21. 2: The Number of Servants of Durham Priory receiving livery,
  22. 20: Total amount of grain bought by the bursar
  23. 221 H.L.Lutz, 'Inaccuracies in Rogers' History of Prices', Quarterly Journal of Economics, 23 (1909), pp.356-7. 234the south-east of England in four out of the six decades looked at here, but lower in the other two.
  24. 221 In the bursar's account
  25. 227 A.B.Weiner and J.Schneider, eds., Cloth and Human Experience (Washington, doi
  26. 235 C.L.Kingsford, ed., The Stonor Letters and Papers, 1290-1483, 2 vols. (Camden Society, 3'd Ser., XXIX and XXX, 1919), Vol.2, p.75.
  27. 25° R.A.Lomas, 'A Priory and its Tenants', in R.H.Britnell, ed., Daily Life in the Late Middle Ages, (Stroud, 1998), pp.117-9.
  28. 262charges from purchasing a total of 189 tuns of wine at
  29. 275 E.Kneisel, 'The Evolution of the English Corn Market', Journal of Economic History, XIV (1954), Pp.46-52, esp. p.51.
  30. 286Jennifer I.Kermode, 'Merchants, Overseas
  31. 286The distinctiveness of the group of import merchants active in Newcastle at this period is also indicated by the fact that the dealers in Weardale iron were an almost entirely seperate group, and
  32. 287 Newcastle was the centre of the wine trade for the Northern region by the sixteenth century, sending wine throughout Northumberland
  33. 2A 9 J.H.A.Munro, Bullion Flows and Monetary Policies in England and the Low Countries, 1350-1500 (Aldershot, 1992), pp.114, 117.
  34. 30: doi
  35. 300Raine, Durham Household Book, p.49. A typical entry reads 'And from Thomas Johnson, 3 hogsheads of wine, £5.15s.0d. Settled in the account between us on the 21st of May, 1532? 30111aine, Durham Household Book, p.216.
  36. 301Fig. 57: Number of cloth transactions per supplier,
  37. 306decade. Richard Cliff, a draper of Halifax about whom nothing else is known, supplied the livery cloths in 1484/5. In 1486/7 the supplier of the livery cloths was not specified
  38. 317 J.Masschaele, 'Transport Costs in Medieval England', Economic History Review, 2'd ser., 46 (1993), p.271.
  39. 321 B.P.Hindle, 'The Road Network of Medieval England and Wales', Journal of Historical Geography, 2 (1976), pp.209, 215. 322 Edwards and.Hindle, 'Transportation System', p.129.
  40. 322Appendix I Database Design and Methodology This study is
  41. 323 B.P.Hindle, 'Roads and Tracks', in L.Cantor ed., The English Medieval Landscape (Croom Helm Historical Geography Ser., 1982), p.214.
  42. 324 G.H.Martin, 'Road Travel in the Middle Ages: Some Journeys of the Warden and Fellows of Merton College, Oxford, 1315-1470', Journal of Transport History, New Ser. III (1975/6), p.172.
  43. 325consistent with
  44. 329John Wilson of
  45. 34 R.A.Lomas and A.J.Piper, eds., Durham Cathedral Priory Rentals, Val: Bursars Rentals (Surtees Society, 198, 1989), p.145.
  46. 348L.Cantor, ed., The English Medieval Landscape (Croom Helm Historical Geography Ser., 1982).
  47. 349C.Cross, Church and People, 1450-1660 (London, 1976).
  48. 350M.R.Foster, 'Durham Cathedral Priory 1229-1333: Aspects of the Ecclesiastical History and Interests of the Monastic Community' (unpublished PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, 1979).
  49. 351V.A.Harding, 'Some Documentary Sources for the Import and Distribution of Foreign Textiles in Later Medieval England', Textile History, 18, (1987). doi
  50. 352S.F.Hockey, ed., The Account Book of Beaulieu Abbey (Camden Society, 4th Ser., 16, 1975).
  51. 353R.E.G.Kirk, ed., Accounts of the Obedientiars of Abingdon Abbey (Camden Society, New Ser., LI, 1892).
  52. 354E.Miller, ed., The Agrarian History of England and Wales, Vol. III, 1348-1500 (Cambridge, 1991). doi
  53. 355
  54. 355T.Percy, ed., The Regulations and Establishment of the Household of Henry Algernon Percy the Fifth Earl of Northumberland at his Castles of Wressle and Leckonfield in Yorkshire, begun A.D. 1512 (London, 2'd edn. 1905).
  55. 356H.W.Saunders, An Introduction to the Obedientiary and Manor Rolls of Norwich Cathedral Priory (Norwich, 1930). A.Savine, 'English Monasteries on the Eve of the Dissolution', in Vinogradoff, ed., Oxford Studies. doi
  56. 357J.Thirsk, England's Agricultural Regions and Agrarian History, 1500-1750 (London, 1987). doi
  57. 361 F.Collins, ed., Register of the Freemen of the City of York, from the City Records, Val: 1272-1558 (Surtees Society, 96, 1897), p.174.
  58. 364 The accounts from the three years prior to 1449/50 have been lost, and so it is possible that John Marshall's relationship with the priory was in fact in place for up to 35 years. 365 Collins, Register, p.174.
  59. 368 Thomas Richardson appears in every bursars' account from 1492/3 to 1503/4; only the account for 1502/3 is missing from the series.
  60. 369 J.W.Kirby, ed., The Manor and Borough of Leeds, 1425-1662: An Edition of Documents (Moresby Society, LVII, 1989), pp. 25, 30. 307commonly used, and their absence here suggests that the same man continued to be referred to.
  61. 379 Reference works on computer applications date notoriously quickly; the journal History and Computing will contain the
  62. 381 These dimensions were specified in the assize
  63. 384 For example, in 1476/7 the chamberlain bought '6 black serge cloths...5 cloths of
  64. 53 See footnotes 50 and 52 above. 54
  65. 56 This calculation uses the amounts used per year, as found in the granators' accounts, which are different from the amount
  66. 61 That is, 1049.4 q. of barley and 46q. of oats. 62 If a figure of 47.5 gallons of ale per quarter is used, this gives 49, 846.5 gallons.
  67. 6Fig. 13: Summary of the total numbers of
  68. 76 DCM Cellarer's account, 1449/50. Only a few eggs were consumed in Advent (170 in the week commencing 13th December 1449), and none in Lent.
  69. 77 Fowler, Account Rolls, Vol.!, pp.93, 97, 105, 108. 76supported by the cellarer's purchase of a cheese fleke — a hurdle for drying cheeses on —
  70. 8: The amount of each type of grain bought by the bursar, 62 1460-1520.
  71. 88 DCM Cellarer's accounts, 1471/2, 1500/1.
  72. 89 Fowler, Account Rolls, Vol.I, p.88 contains references to
  73. 9° C.Noble,
  74. 97 J.Fitzherbert, The Boke of Husbondrye (1523), ed. W.W.Skeat (English Dialect Society, 1882), p.87. 80available on the crops actually grown in monastic gardens,
  75. 99health wine was perceived to be. Andrew Boorde's Dyetwy, a manual on the healthful qualities and dangers of all sorts of food, with diet suggestions for various
  76. 9Fig. 68: The prices at which different amounts of wheat were bought 342 by the bursar, 1460-1520.
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  89. Agents were also used in transactions nearer to home, such as in Newcastle. As has been seen, the obedientiaries were labouring under
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  122. e q‘ A0 .spc3 41, 43 ") 4/, 0 ). 43 cs 0 t. co 0 43 4Z3 \rt, ,0 Year — Amount spent in £10 —
  123. E.Ashtor, Levant Trade in the Later Middle Ages (Princeton, 1983).
  124. E.C.Fernie and A.B.Whittingham, The Early Communar and Pittancer Rolls of Norwich Cathedral Priory with an Account of the Building of the Cloister (Norfolk Record Society, XLI, 1972).
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  127. E.G.Clarke, 'Medieval Debt Litigation: Essex and Norfolk, 1270-1490' (unpublished PhD thesis, University of Michigan, 1977).
  128. E.Gemmill and N.Mayhew, Changing Values in Medieval Scotland: A Study of Prices, Money and Weights and Measures (Cambridge, 1995). doi
  129. E.Kneisel, 'The Evolution of the English Corn Market', Journal of Economic History, XIV, (1954).
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  137. Economic
  138. F. 29: The avera e irice aid for wine b the
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  140. F.Collins, ed., Index of Wills in the York Registry, A.D.1514 to 1553 (Yorkshire Archaeological Society Record Ser., XI, 1891).
  141. F.Collins, ed., Register of the Freemen of the City of York, from the city records, Vol.1: 1272-1558 (Surtees Society, 96, 1897).
  142. F.E.Baldwin, Sumptuary Legislation and Personal Regulation in England (Baltimore, 1926).
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  145. F.W.Dendy, ed., Extracts from the Records of the Merchant Adventurers of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Vol.1, (Surtees Society, 93, 1895).
  146. Fig.
  147. Fig. 10: The priory's annual wheat consumption, 1460-1520, compared 64 with the monastic population.
  148. Fig. 10: The priory's annual wheat consumption, 1460-1520, compared with the monastic population % Number of Monks % Quarters of Wheat
  149. Fig. 11:
  150. Fig. 11: The weekly consumption of wheat by the priory, based
  151. Fig. 12: The amounts
  152. Fig. 12: The amounts of the principle varieties of meat and fish recorded 69 in the sampled bursar/cellarer indentures, 1465-1515.
  153. Fig. 13: Summary of the total numbers of animals recorded in the sampled
  154. Fig. 17: Mode prices of each grain variety, 1460-1520 0 - Wheat (average 5s. lid.) — 11-- Barley (average 4s.0d.) Peas & Beans (average 3s.9d.) —A—Oats (average I s.8d.) Stp ,/‘ AtA A t. A R) ,0 0 ,C3 \IR % rt. ,Co 4,3 e0 9.
  155. Fig. 17: Mode prices of each grain variety, 1460-1520. 110 Fig. 18: Differentials between the
  156. Fig. 2: The number of servants of Durham Priory receiving livery, 1509-11 Year Number of servants receiving livery Gentlemen Clerical Valets Valets Grooms Other Tota 1 1509/10 10 3 58 37 4 112 1510/11 10 3 47 47 4 111 1° Durham Cathedral
  157. Fig. 21: Scatter diagram illustrating the elasticity of the priory's demand 117
  158. Fig. 22: The impact of price changes on the bursars' wheat purchases, 118 1460-1520.
  159. Fig. 23: The impact of price changes on the bursars' barley purchases, 119 1460-1520.
  160. Fig. 23: The impact of price changes on the bursars' barley purchases, 1460-1520 40 35 30 5 n:'2" 20 15 10 5
  161. Fig. 24: The impact of price changes on the bursars' oat purchases, 120 1460-1520.
  162. Fig. 25: Stockpiling and the use of the granary; the relationship between
  163. Fig. 26: Average mode price of
  164. Fig. 27: The bursars' purchases of wine, 1464-1520. 126 Fig. 28:
  165. Fig. 33: Prices paid by the priory for hardyn, with best-fit
  166. Fig. 33: Prices paid by the priory for hardyn, with best-fit line 1460-1520 30 — •• • 28 — 26 • • • et 24 — • 22 20 •MN* •N• • , I • I • I I 143) 14A) 1483 1430 191 1510 1) Year 186 Tillotson, Monastery and Society, pp.253, 111.
  167. Fig. 36: Prices paid by the priory for linen, 1460-1520. 154 Fig. 37: Prices paid for linen and amount bought by the bursar, 159 1460-1520.
  168. (1510). Fig. 37: Prices paid for linen and amount bought by the bursar, 1460-1520 SD 143D 14-AD
  169. Fig. 38: Prices paid for linen and amount bought by the chamberlain, 160 1460-1520.
  170. Fig. 39: Prices paid by the bursar for livery cloth for the prior, 173 obedientiaries, gentlemen, valets and grooms of the priory respectively, 1464-1520.
  171. Fig. 4: An example of the dot-pattern system of auditing. 42 Fig. 5: The quantity of
  172. Fig. 40: The amount of livery cloth bought by the bursar for the 177 gentlemen of the priory, 1464-1520.
  173. Fig. 41: Price trends in a sample of meat and fish products, 1465-1515. 188 Fig. 42: Table showing the rental payments made in grain by tenants of 202 Cowpen Bewley, 1495-1510.
  174. Fig. 43: Table summarising the prevailing grain prices and grain used to pay rents at Cowpen Bewley, 1495-1510.
  175. Fig. 46: Locations from which the priory acquired grain in 1495/6. 216 Fig. 47: Map showing the distribution of the priory's poultry purchases, 219 1465-1515.
  176. Fig. 48: Map showing the distribution of the priory's purchases of 222 dogdraves, 1465-1515.
  177. Fig. 49: Decennial average prices of wheat by region, 1461-1520. 235 8Fig. 50: Comparison of grain price indices at Durham with those for 238 England overall, 1461-1520.
  178. Fig. 51: Comparison of harvest qualities for Durham and England 241 overall, 1460-1520.
  179. Fig. 52: Transport costs for livery cloth consignments, 1465-1505 Carriage to Durham from: Miles (modern estimate): Cost: Cost in pence per mile: York (1465) 64 5s. 0.9 York (1466) 64 6s.8d. 1.3 York (1467 - 1469) 64 10s. 1.9 York (1470
  180. Fig. 54: Place names mentioned in the wine and iron sections of the 292 bursars' accounts, 1464-1520.
  181. Fig. 55: The distribution of transactions per supplier by gender, 295 in the databased accounts 1464-1520.
  182. Fig. 56: Breakdown of the
  183. Fig. 58: Distribution of cloth suppliers by average transaction value, 303 1464-1520.
  184. Fig. 59: The average number of transactions per identifiable supplier for 304 various types of cloth, 1464-1520.
  185. Fig. 6: The quantity of
  186. Fig. 60: Distribution of hardyn transactions between identifiable 309 suppliers, 1464-1520.
  187. Fig. 61: Distribution of linen transactions between identifiable 309 suppliers, 1464-1520.
  188. Fig. 62: Cloth-type specialism amongst suppliers of cloth to Durham 311 Cathedral Priory who were involved in five or more cloth transactions, excluding the main livery drapers, 1465-1520.
  189. Fig. 63: Entity relationship diagram showing the database design. 337 Fig. 64: The surviving obedientiary accounts, 1460-1520. 340 Fig. 65: The prices at which different amounts of wheat were bought 341 by the bursar, 1460-1520.
  190. Fig. 66: The prices at which different amounts of wheat were bought 341 by the bursar, 1460-1520.
  191. Fig. 67: The prices at which different amounts of wheat were bought 342 by the bursar, 1460-1520.
  192. Fig. 69: The edible weight of meat purchased by the cellarer, 1465-1515. 345 Fig. 70: The edible weight of fish purchased by the cellarer, 1465-1515. 346 Declarations Those parts of this thesis which refer to
  193. Fig. 7: The quantity of
  194. Fig. 9: The amount of wheat consumed by the priory, 1460-1520, with
  195. Fig.22: The impact of price changes on the bursars' wheat purchases, 1460-1520 30 0 1111. 11,11111-111,1,111. 111111117111 111 1III IITTII IIII IIII II i G1' (3 5 ,\\ ,\^ % Q. cfP ce'
  196. G.H.Martin, 'Road Travel in the Middle Ages: some Journeys by the Warden and Fellows of Merton College, Oxford, 1315-1470', Journal of Transport History, New Ser., III (1975/6).
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  200. H.S.Bennett, The Pastons and their England (Cambridge, 3rd edn. 1990).
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  202. However, in 1474/5 both obedientiaries purchased their aniseed from
  203. I Percy, Regulations and Establishment, p.16. 1587 6 5 4 3 3Z0-ao -I 230 10D -yard. In 1508/9, the average price paid by the bursar was much higher than usual due to the inclusion of the prior's table-linen at ls.4d. per yard, already discussed.
  204. I.Kershaw, ed., Bolton Priory Rentals and Ministers' Accounts, 1473-1539 (Yorkshire Archaeological Society Record Series, 000CII, 1970). doi
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  207. If oil bought in bulk was slightly cheaper at id. per gallon, a barrel would contain 30 gallons. In 1515, three barrels 'of greater size' were bought at a higher than normal price. 103 Rogers, Agriculture and Prices, Vol.IV, pp.366-7.
  208. impact of price changes on the amount
  209. in
  210. In 1532/3, the bursar purchased a total of 151b. of sugar from a Master Swynburne on the 6th and the 9th of July, 1532.
  211. in England (Baltimore, 1926), p.10. 179widely ignored, it is interesting to see that the practice at Durham priory show definite parallels with the sumptuary laws passed in England in this period.
  212. it is possible to see a general pattern of 'good' and 'bad' years in this data.
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