148 For wheat, the mode price was the only price in 1462/3, 1465/6, 1467/8, 1470-5, 1478-82, 1484-8, 1492-1501, 1503/4, 1506/7 and 1508-11. Years in which there was a single exceptional price were 1468/9, 1504/5, 1506/7 and
149An Italian reporting on England in c.1500 specifically noted that `few people keep wine
152 N.S.B.Gras, The Evolution of the English Corn Market from the Twelfth to the Eighteenth Century (New York, 1915, reissued 1967), p.37; Dyer, Standards of Living, pp.55-7. 11312— 8— 6— 4— • •
156noble of his standing. 197 On the other hand, the extremely wide price-range for such things is shown by the purchase by the Durham cell at Monk Wearmouth in 1468/9 of 60 ells of linen 'for sheets, napkins and long handtowels', at only 3d.
167C.Verlinden, ed., Documents pour l'histoire des prixs et des salaires en Flandres et en Brabant,
16The scale of the administrative task faced by the monks
17J.Raine, ed., The Durham Household Book: or, The Accounts of the Bursar of the Monastery of Durham, from Pentecost 1530 to Pentecost 1534 (Surtees Society, 18, 1844), p.viii.
18Dobson, Durham Cathedral Priory, p.287. 20even these divided responsibilities, and complaints were voiced that the experiment simply tripled administrative overheads for no gain. In 1445 the old system was reinstated by
198 J.Raine, ed., The Inventories and Account Rolls of the Benedictine Houses or Cells of Jarrow and Monk- Wearmouth in the County of Durham (Surtees Society, 29, 1854), p.211.
2: The Number of Servants of Durham Priory receiving livery,
20: Total amount of grain bought by the bursar
221 H.L.Lutz, 'Inaccuracies in Rogers' History of Prices', Quarterly Journal of Economics, 23 (1909), pp.356-7. 234the south-east of England in four out of the six decades looked at here, but lower in the other two.
221 In the bursar's account
227 A.B.Weiner and J.Schneider, eds., Cloth and Human Experience (Washington,
235 C.L.Kingsford, ed., The Stonor Letters and Papers, 1290-1483, 2 vols. (Camden Society, 3'd Ser., XXIX and XXX, 1919), Vol.2, p.75.
25° R.A.Lomas, 'A Priory and its Tenants', in R.H.Britnell, ed., Daily Life in the Late Middle Ages, (Stroud, 1998), pp.117-9.
262charges from purchasing a total of 189 tuns of wine at
275 E.Kneisel, 'The Evolution of the English Corn Market', Journal of Economic History, XIV (1954), Pp.46-52, esp. p.51.
286Jennifer I.Kermode, 'Merchants, Overseas
286The distinctiveness of the group of import merchants active in Newcastle at this period is also indicated by the fact that the dealers in Weardale iron were an almost entirely seperate group, and
287 Newcastle was the centre of the wine trade for the Northern region by the sixteenth century, sending wine throughout Northumberland
2A 9 J.H.A.Munro, Bullion Flows and Monetary Policies in England and the Low Countries, 1350-1500 (Aldershot, 1992), pp.114, 117.
300Raine, Durham Household Book, p.49. A typical entry reads 'And from Thomas Johnson, 3 hogsheads of wine, £5.15s.0d. Settled in the account between us on the 21st of May, 1532? 30111aine, Durham Household Book, p.216.
301Fig. 57: Number of cloth transactions per supplier,
306decade. Richard Cliff, a draper of Halifax about whom nothing else is known, supplied the livery cloths in 1484/5. In 1486/7 the supplier of the livery cloths was not specified
317 J.Masschaele, 'Transport Costs in Medieval England', Economic History Review, 2'd ser., 46 (1993), p.271.
321 B.P.Hindle, 'The Road Network of Medieval England and Wales', Journal of Historical Geography, 2 (1976), pp.209, 215. 322 Edwards and.Hindle, 'Transportation System', p.129.
322Appendix I Database Design and Methodology This study is
323 B.P.Hindle, 'Roads and Tracks', in L.Cantor ed., The English Medieval Landscape (Croom Helm Historical Geography Ser., 1982), p.214.
324 G.H.Martin, 'Road Travel in the Middle Ages: Some Journeys of the Warden and Fellows of Merton College, Oxford, 1315-1470', Journal of Transport History, New Ser. III (1975/6), p.172.
348L.Cantor, ed., The English Medieval Landscape (Croom Helm Historical Geography Ser., 1982).
349C.Cross, Church and People, 1450-1660 (London, 1976).
350M.R.Foster, 'Durham Cathedral Priory 1229-1333: Aspects of the Ecclesiastical History and Interests of the Monastic Community' (unpublished PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, 1979).
351V.A.Harding, 'Some Documentary Sources for the Import and Distribution of Foreign Textiles in Later Medieval England', Textile History, 18, (1987).
352S.F.Hockey, ed., The Account Book of Beaulieu Abbey (Camden Society, 4th Ser., 16, 1975).
353R.E.G.Kirk, ed., Accounts of the Obedientiars of Abingdon Abbey (Camden Society, New Ser., LI, 1892).
354E.Miller, ed., The Agrarian History of England and Wales, Vol. III, 1348-1500 (Cambridge, 1991).
355T.Percy, ed., The Regulations and Establishment of the Household of Henry Algernon Percy the Fifth Earl of Northumberland at his Castles of Wressle and Leckonfield in Yorkshire, begun A.D. 1512 (London, 2'd edn. 1905).
356H.W.Saunders, An Introduction to the Obedientiary and Manor Rolls of Norwich Cathedral Priory (Norwich, 1930). A.Savine, 'English Monasteries on the Eve of the Dissolution', in Vinogradoff, ed., Oxford Studies.
357J.Thirsk, England's Agricultural Regions and Agrarian History, 1500-1750 (London, 1987).
361 F.Collins, ed., Register of the Freemen of the City of York, from the City Records, Val: 1272-1558 (Surtees Society, 96, 1897), p.174.
364 The accounts from the three years prior to 1449/50 have been lost, and so it is possible that John Marshall's relationship with the priory was in fact in place for up to 35 years. 365 Collins, Register, p.174.
368 Thomas Richardson appears in every bursars' account from 1492/3 to 1503/4; only the account for 1502/3 is missing from the series.
369 J.W.Kirby, ed., The Manor and Borough of Leeds, 1425-1662: An Edition of Documents (Moresby Society, LVII, 1989), pp. 25, 30. 307commonly used, and their absence here suggests that the same man continued to be referred to.
379 Reference works on computer applications date notoriously quickly; the journal History and Computing will contain the
381 These dimensions were specified in the assize
384 For example, in 1476/7 the chamberlain bought '6 black serge cloths...5 cloths of
53 See footnotes 50 and 52 above. 54
56 This calculation uses the amounts used per year, as found in the granators' accounts, which are different from the amount
61 That is, 1049.4 q. of barley and 46q. of oats. 62 If a figure of 47.5 gallons of ale per quarter is used, this gives 49, 846.5 gallons.
6Fig. 13: Summary of the total numbers of
76 DCM Cellarer's account, 1449/50. Only a few eggs were consumed in Advent (170 in the week commencing 13th December 1449), and none in Lent.
77 Fowler, Account Rolls, Vol.!, pp.93, 97, 105, 108. 76supported by the cellarer's purchase of a cheese fleke — a hurdle for drying cheeses on —
8: The amount of each type of grain bought by the bursar, 62 1460-1520.
88 DCM Cellarer's accounts, 1471/2, 1500/1.
89 Fowler, Account Rolls, Vol.I, p.88 contains references to
97 J.Fitzherbert, The Boke of Husbondrye (1523), ed. W.W.Skeat (English Dialect Society, 1882), p.87. 80available on the crops actually grown in monastic gardens,
99health wine was perceived to be. Andrew Boorde's Dyetwy, a manual on the healthful qualities and dangers of all sorts of food, with diet suggestions for various
9Fig. 68: The prices at which different amounts of wheat were bought 342 by the bursar, 1460-1520.
A.B.Cobban, The King's Hall within the University of Cambridge in the Later Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1969).
A.B.Weiner and J.Schneider, eds., Cloth and Human Experience (Washington, 1989).
A.Boorde, The fyrst boke of the introduction of the knowledge made by Andrew Borde, of physycke doctor (1542), ed. F.J.Fumivall (Early English Text Society, Extra Ser., 10, 1870).
A.Crawford, The Household Books of John Howard, Duke Of Norfolk, 1462-1471, 1481-1483 (Stroud, 1992).
A.F. Sutton, 'Order and Fashion in Clothes: The King, His Household and the City of London at the End of the Fifteenth Century', Textile History, 22 (1991).
A.F.Butcher, 'Rent, Population and Economic Change in Late-Medieval Newcastle', Northern History (.14, 1978).
A.Gilmour-Bryson, ed., Computer Applications to Medieval Studies, (Studies in Medieval Culture, XVII, 1984).
A.H.Thompson, ed., Liber Vitae Ecclesiae Dunelmensis. A Collotype Facsimile of the Original Manuscript, with Introductory Essays and Notes. Vol.1, Facsimile and General Introduction (Surtees Society, 136, 1923).
A.Hanham, ed., The Cely Letters 1472-1488 (Early English Text Society, 273, 1975).
A.L.Simon, The History of the Wine Trade in England, 2 vols. (London, 1906-7).
A.R.Bridbury, Medieval English Clothmaking: An Economic Survey (London, 1982).
A.R.Myers, Crown, Household and Parliament in Fifteenth Century England (London, 1985).
Agents were also used in transactions nearer to home, such as in Newcastle. As has been seen, the obedientiaries were labouring under
B.H.Slicher von Bath, Yield Ratios, 810-1810 (Wageningen, 1963).
B.Harvey, Living and Dying in England 1100-1540: The Monastic Experience (Oxford, 1993). B.Harvey, 'The Aristocratic Consumer in England in the Long Thirteenth Century', in M.Prestwich et.al., eds., Thirteenth Century England 6.
B.P.Hindle, 'Seasonal Variations in Travel in Medieval England', Journal of Transport History, New Ser., IV (1978). B.P.Hindle, 'Roads and Tracks', in L.Cantor, ed., The English Medieval Landscape.
B.P.Hindle, 'The Road Network of Medieval England and Wales', Journal of Historical Geography, 2 (1976).
C.B.Hieatt and S.Butler, eds., Curye on Inglysch: English Culinary Manuscripts of the Fourteenth Century (including the Forme of Cury) (Early English Text Society, supplementary ser., 8, 1985).
C.Clay, ed., Early Yorkshire Families, Yorkshire Archaeological Society Record Ser., CXXXV (1973).
C.Dyer, Everyday Life in Medieval England (London, 1996), J.F.Edwards and B.P.Hindle, 'The Transportation System of Medieval England and Wales', Journal of Historical Geography, 17 (1991).
C.Dyer, Standards of Living in the Later Middle Ages: Social change in England c.1200-1520 (Cambridge, 1989).
C.H.H.Wake, 'The Changing Pattern of Europe's Pepper and Spice Imports, c.1400-1700', Journal of European Economic History, 8 (1979).
C.Harvey and J.Press, Databases in Historical Research (London, 1996).
C.Harvey, E.M.Green and P.Comfield, 'Record Linkage Theory and Practice: an Experiment in the Application of Multiple Pass Linkage Algorithms', History and Computing, 8 (1996).
C.L.Kingsford, ed., The Stonor Letters and Papers, 1290-1483, 2 vols. (Camden Society, 3rd Ser., 30CIX and XXX, 1919).
C.M.Fraser, 'The Early Hostmen of Newcastle-upon-Tyne', Archaeologia Aeliana, 5th Ser., XII (1984).
C.M.Fraser, 'The Pattern of Trade in the North-East of England, 1265-1350', Northern History, 4 (1969).
C.M.Fraser, ed., Accounts of the Chamberlains of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1508-1511 (The Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Record Ser., 3, 1987).
C.M.Newman, 'Employment on the Priory of Durham Estates, 1494-1519: The Priory as an Employer', Northern History, XXVI (2000).
C.M.Woolgar ed., Household Accounts from Medieval England, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1992 and 1993).
C.M.Woolgar, The Great Household in Late Medieval England (New Haven, 1999). .44 359
C.Muldrew, The Economy of Obligation (London, 1998).
C.Pythian-Adams, Desolation of a City: Coventry and the Urban Crisis of the Late Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1979).
C.R.Cheney, ed., Handbook of Dates for Students of English History (London, 1961).
C.Verlinden, ed., Documents pour l'histoire des prixs et des salaires en Flandres et en Brabant (Bruges, 1959).
D.C.Coleman and A.H.John eds., Trade, Government and Economy in PreIndustrial England: Essays presented to F.J.Fisher (London, 1976).
D.C.Coleman, The Economy of England, 1450-1750 (Oxford, 1977).
D.C.North, 'Transaction Costs in History', Journal of European Economic History, 14 (1985).
D.Hay, Europe in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries (London, 1966).
D.I.Greenstein, A Historian's Guide to Computing (Oxford, 1994).
D.J.Clayton, R.G.Davies and P.McNiven, Trade, Devotion and Governance: Papers in Later Medieval English History (Stroud, 1994).
D.L.Farmer, 'Prices and Wages 1350-1500', in E.Miller, ed., Agrarian History.
D.M.Mitchell, ' "By Your Leave my Masters": British Taste in Table Linen in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries', Textile History, 20 (1989).
D.M.Palliser, 'A Crisis in English Towns? The Case of York, 1460-1640', Northern History, 14 (1978).
e q‘ A0 .spc3 41, 43 ") 4/, 0 ). 43 cs 0 t. co 0 43 4Z3 \rt, ,0 Year — Amount spent in £10 —
E.Ashtor, Levant Trade in the Later Middle Ages (Princeton, 1983).
E.C.Fernie and A.B.Whittingham, The Early Communar and Pittancer Rolls of Norwich Cathedral Priory with an Account of the Building of the Cloister (Norfolk Record Society, XLI, 1972).
E.Cambridge, 'The Masons and Building Works of Durham Priory 1339-1539' (unpublished PhD thesis, University of Durham, 1992).
E.Crowfoot, F.Pritchard and K.Staniland, Textiles and Clothing c.1150 - c.1450: Medieval Finds from Excavations in London (London, 1992).
E.G.Clarke, 'Medieval Debt Litigation: Essex and Norfolk, 1270-1490' (unpublished PhD thesis, University of Michigan, 1977).
E.Gemmill and N.Mayhew, Changing Values in Medieval Scotland: A Study of Prices, Money and Weights and Measures (Cambridge, 1995).
E.Kneisel, 'The Evolution of the English Corn Market', Journal of Economic History, XIV, (1954).
E.M.Carus-Wilson, ed., Essays in Economic History: Reprints Edited for the Economic History Society, Vol. 1 (London, 1954) and Vol. 2 (London, 1962).
E.M.Veale, The English Fur Trade in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 1966).
E.Mauwdsley, N.Morgan, L.Richmond and R.Trair, eds., History and Computing III: Historians, Computers and Data —Applications in Research and Teaching (Manchester, 1990).
E.Power and M.M.Postan, Studies in English Trade in the Fifteenth Century (London, 1966).
E.Searle and B.Ross, eds., Accounts of the Cellarers of Battle Abbey, 1275-1513 (Sydney, 1967).
E.Searle, Lordship and Community: Battle Abbey and its Banlieu, 1060 —1538 (Toronto, 1974).
F. 29: The avera e irice aid for wine b the
F.Collins, ed., Index of Wills in the York Registry, 1389-1514 (Yorkshire Archaeological Society Record Ser., VI, 1889).
F.Collins, ed., Index of Wills in the York Registry, A.D.1514 to 1553 (Yorkshire Archaeological Society Record Ser., XI, 1891).
F.Collins, ed., Register of the Freemen of the City of York, from the city records, Vol.1: 1272-1558 (Surtees Society, 96, 1897).
F.E.Baldwin, Sumptuary Legislation and Personal Regulation in England (Baltimore, 1926).
F.Swabey, Medieval Gentlewoman: Life in a Widow's Household in the Later Middle Ages (Stroud, 1999).
F.W.Dendy, 'The Struggle between the Merchant and Craft Gilds of Newcastle in 1515', Archaeologia Aehana, 3rd Ser., 7, (1911).
F.W.Dendy, ed., Extracts from the Records of the Merchant Adventurers of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Vol.1, (Surtees Society, 93, 1895).
Fig. 10: The priory's annual wheat consumption, 1460-1520, compared 64 with the monastic population.
Fig. 10: The priory's annual wheat consumption, 1460-1520, compared with the monastic population % Number of Monks % Quarters of Wheat
Fig. 11: The weekly consumption of wheat by the priory, based
Fig. 12: The amounts
Fig. 12: The amounts of the principle varieties of meat and fish recorded 69 in the sampled bursar/cellarer indentures, 1465-1515.
Fig. 13: Summary of the total numbers of animals recorded in the sampled
Fig. 17: Mode prices of each grain variety, 1460-1520 0 - Wheat (average 5s. lid.) — 11-- Barley (average 4s.0d.) Peas & Beans (average 3s.9d.) —A—Oats (average I s.8d.) Stp ,/‘ AtA A t. A R) ,0 0 ,C3 \IR % rt. ,Co 4,3 e0 9.
Fig. 17: Mode prices of each grain variety, 1460-1520. 110 Fig. 18: Differentials between the
Fig. 2: The number of servants of Durham Priory receiving livery, 1509-11 Year Number of servants receiving livery Gentlemen Clerical Valets Valets Grooms Other Tota 1 1509/10 10 3 58 37 4 112 1510/11 10 3 47 47 4 111 1° Durham Cathedral
Fig. 21: Scatter diagram illustrating the elasticity of the priory's demand 117
Fig. 22: The impact of price changes on the bursars' wheat purchases, 118 1460-1520.
Fig. 23: The impact of price changes on the bursars' barley purchases, 119 1460-1520.
Fig. 23: The impact of price changes on the bursars' barley purchases, 1460-1520 40 35 30 5 n:'2" 20 15 10 5
Fig. 24: The impact of price changes on the bursars' oat purchases, 120 1460-1520.
Fig. 25: Stockpiling and the use of the granary; the relationship between
Fig. 26: Average mode price of
Fig. 27: The bursars' purchases of wine, 1464-1520. 126 Fig. 28:
Fig. 33: Prices paid by the priory for hardyn, with best-fit
Fig. 33: Prices paid by the priory for hardyn, with best-fit line 1460-1520 30 — •• • 28 — 26 • • • et 24 — • 22 20 •MN* •N• • , I • I • I I 143) 14A) 1483 1430 191 1510 1) Year 186 Tillotson, Monastery and Society, pp.253, 111.
Fig. 36: Prices paid by the priory for linen, 1460-1520. 154 Fig. 37: Prices paid for linen and amount bought by the bursar, 159 1460-1520.
(1510). Fig. 37: Prices paid for linen and amount bought by the bursar, 1460-1520 SD 143D 14-AD
Fig. 38: Prices paid for linen and amount bought by the chamberlain, 160 1460-1520.
Fig. 39: Prices paid by the bursar for livery cloth for the prior, 173 obedientiaries, gentlemen, valets and grooms of the priory respectively, 1464-1520.
Fig. 4: An example of the dot-pattern system of auditing. 42 Fig. 5: The quantity of
Fig. 40: The amount of livery cloth bought by the bursar for the 177 gentlemen of the priory, 1464-1520.
Fig. 41: Price trends in a sample of meat and fish products, 1465-1515. 188 Fig. 42: Table showing the rental payments made in grain by tenants of 202 Cowpen Bewley, 1495-1510.
Fig. 43: Table summarising the prevailing grain prices and grain used to pay rents at Cowpen Bewley, 1495-1510.
Fig. 46: Locations from which the priory acquired grain in 1495/6. 216 Fig. 47: Map showing the distribution of the priory's poultry purchases, 219 1465-1515.
Fig. 48: Map showing the distribution of the priory's purchases of 222 dogdraves, 1465-1515.
Fig. 49: Decennial average prices of wheat by region, 1461-1520. 235 8Fig. 50: Comparison of grain price indices at Durham with those for 238 England overall, 1461-1520.
Fig. 51: Comparison of harvest qualities for Durham and England 241 overall, 1460-1520.
Fig. 52: Transport costs for livery cloth consignments, 1465-1505 Carriage to Durham from: Miles (modern estimate): Cost: Cost in pence per mile: York (1465) 64 5s. 0.9 York (1466) 64 6s.8d. 1.3 York (1467 - 1469) 64 10s. 1.9 York (1470
Fig. 54: Place names mentioned in the wine and iron sections of the 292 bursars' accounts, 1464-1520.
Fig. 55: The distribution of transactions per supplier by gender, 295 in the databased accounts 1464-1520.
Fig. 56: Breakdown of the
Fig. 58: Distribution of cloth suppliers by average transaction value, 303 1464-1520.
Fig. 59: The average number of transactions per identifiable supplier for 304 various types of cloth, 1464-1520.
Fig. 6: The quantity of
Fig. 60: Distribution of hardyn transactions between identifiable 309 suppliers, 1464-1520.
Fig. 61: Distribution of linen transactions between identifiable 309 suppliers, 1464-1520.
Fig. 62: Cloth-type specialism amongst suppliers of cloth to Durham 311 Cathedral Priory who were involved in five or more cloth transactions, excluding the main livery drapers, 1465-1520.
Fig. 63: Entity relationship diagram showing the database design. 337 Fig. 64: The surviving obedientiary accounts, 1460-1520. 340 Fig. 65: The prices at which different amounts of wheat were bought 341 by the bursar, 1460-1520.
Fig. 66: The prices at which different amounts of wheat were bought 341 by the bursar, 1460-1520.
Fig. 67: The prices at which different amounts of wheat were bought 342 by the bursar, 1460-1520.
Fig. 69: The edible weight of meat purchased by the cellarer, 1465-1515. 345 Fig. 70: The edible weight of fish purchased by the cellarer, 1465-1515. 346 Declarations Those parts of this thesis which refer to
Fig. 7: The quantity of
Fig. 9: The amount of wheat consumed by the priory, 1460-1520, with
Fig.22: The impact of price changes on the bursars' wheat purchases, 1460-1520 30 0 1111. 11,11111-111,1,111. 111111117111 111 1III IITTII IIII IIII II i G1' (3 5 ,\\ ,\^ % Q. cfP ce'
G.H.Martin, 'Road Travel in the Middle Ages: some Journeys by the Warden and Fellows of Merton College, Oxford, 1315-1470', Journal of Transport History, New Ser., III (1975/6).
H.Heaton, The Yorkshire Woollen and Worsted Industries, from the earliest times up to the industrial reution, (Oxford, 2nd edn. 1965).
H.L.Lutz, 'Inaccuracies in Rogers' History of Prices', Quarterly Journal of Economics, 23 (1909).
H.S.Bennett, The Pastons and their England (Cambridge, 3rd edn. 1990).
H.Van der Wee, The Growth of the Antwerp Market, 3 vols. (The Hague, 1963).
However, in 1474/5 both obedientiaries purchased their aniseed from
I Percy, Regulations and Establishment, p.16. 1587 6 5 4 3 3Z0-ao -I 230 10D -yard. In 1508/9, the average price paid by the bursar was much higher than usual due to the inclusion of the prior's table-linen at ls.4d. per yard, already discussed.
I.Kershaw, ed., Bolton Priory Rentals and Ministers' Accounts, 1473-1539 (Yorkshire Archaeological Society Record Series, 000CII, 1970).
I.S.W.Blanchard, 'Commercial Crisis and Change: Trade and the Industrial Economy of the Nonorth-East, 1509-1532', Northern History, 8 (1973). C.J.Bond, 'Monastic Fisheries', in M.Aston ed., Medieval Fish, Fisheries and Fishponds.
I.S.W.Blanchard, 'Seigneurial Entrepreneurship: The Bishops of Durham and the Weardale Lead Industry 1406-1529', Business History, 15 (1973).
If oil bought in bulk was slightly cheaper at id. per gallon, a barrel would contain 30 gallons. In 1515, three barrels 'of greater size' were bought at a higher than normal price. 103 Rogers, Agriculture and Prices, Vol.IV, pp.366-7.
impact of price changes on the amount
In 1532/3, the bursar purchased a total of 151b. of sugar from a Master Swynburne on the 6th and the 9th of July, 1532.
in England (Baltimore, 1926), p.10. 179widely ignored, it is interesting to see that the practice at Durham priory show definite parallels with the sumptuary laws passed in England in this period.
it is possible to see a general pattern of 'good' and 'bad' years in this data.
J.A. Van Houtte, An Economic History of the Low Countries (London, 1977).
J.C.Hammond and A.Wilbraham, The Englishman's Food (London, 1957).
J.E.T.Rogers, A History of Agriculture and Prices in England, From the Year after the Oxford Parliament (1259) to the Commencement of the Continental War (1793), Compiled Entirely from Original and Contemporaneous Records, 7 vols. (Oxford, 1882).
J.F.Wade, The Customs Accounts of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 1454-1500 (Surtees Society, 202, 1995).
J.Fitzherbert, The Boke of Husbondrye (1523), ed. W.W.Skeat (English Dialect Society, 1882).
J.Fox, ed., Villon: Poems (London, 1984).
J.Greatrex, ed., Account Rolls of the Obedientiaries of Peterborough, Northamptonshire Record Society, 33 (1984).
J.Guy, Tudor England (Oxford, 1988).
J.H.A.Munro, Bullion Flows and Monetary Policies in England and the Low Countries, 1350-1500 (Aldershot, 1992).
J.H.Harvey, Early Nurserymen: with Reprints of Documents and Lists (London, 1974).
J.H.Munro, Textiles, Towns and Trade: Essays in the Economic History of LateMedieval England and the Low Countries (Aldershot, 1994).
J.H.Tillotson, ed., Monastery and Society in the Late Middle Ages: Selected Account Rolls from Selby Abbey, Yorkshire, 1398-1 53 7 (Woodbridge, 1988).
J.Hatcher, Rural Economy and Society in the Duchy of Cornwall, 1300-1500 (Cambridge, 1970).
J.I. Kermode, Medieval Merchants: York Beverley and Hull in the Later Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1998).
J.I.Kermode, 'Merchants, Overseas trade and Urban Decline: York, Beverley and Hull, c.1380 -1500', Northern History, 23 (1987).
J.Kaye, Economy and Nature in the Fourteenth Century: Money, Market Exchange and the Emergence of Scientific Thought (Cambridge, 1998).
J.M.Stratton and J.H.Brown, ed. R.Whitlock, Agricultural Records, A.D. 220-1977 (London, 2nd edn. 1978).
J.Masschaele, 'Transport Costs in Medieval England', Economic History Review, 2' Ser., 46 (1993).
J.P.Collier, ed., The Household Books of John, Duke of Norfolk and Thomas, Earl of Surrey, 1481-1490 (London, 1844).
J.P.Huntley and S.Stallibrass, Plant and Vertebrae Remains from Archaeological Sites in Northern England: Data Reviews and Future Directions (Architectural and Archaeological Society of Durham and Northumberland Research Report, 4, 1995).
J.R.Hale, Renaissance Europe 1480-1520 (London, 1971).
J.R.Lander, Conflict and Stability in Fifteenth-Century England (London, 3" edn. 1977).
J.Raine ed., The Inventories and Account Rolls of the Benedictine Houses or Cells of Jarrow and Monk- Wearmouth in the County of Durham (Surtees Society, 29, 1854).
J.Raine, ed., The Durham Household Book: or, The Accounts of the Bursar of the Monastery of Durham, from Pentecost 1530 to Pentecost 1534 (Surtees Society, 18, 1844).
J.Raine, ed., The Priory of Finchale (Surtees Society, 6, 1837).
J.T.Fowler, ed., Extracts from the Account Rolls of the Abbey of Durham, from the original MSS, 3 Vols., (Surtees Society, 99 (1898), 100 (1898), 103 (1900)).
J.T.Fowler, ed., The Rites of Durham (Surtees Society, 107, 1903).
J.Thirsk, ed., Land, Church and People: Essays presented to Professor H.P.R.Finberg (Agricultural History Review Supplement, 18, 1970).
J.Thirsk, ed., The Agrarian History of England and Wales, Vol. IV, 1500-1640 (Cambridge, 1967).
J.W.Kirby, ed., The Manor and Borough of Leeds, 1425-1662: An Edition of Documents (Thoresby Society, LVII, 1889).
J.W.Percy, York Memorandum Book (Surtees Society, 186, 1973).
J.Z.Titow, Winchester Yields: A Study in Medieval Agricultural Productivity (Cambridge, 1972).
K.Biddick, The Other Economy: Pastoral Husbandry on a Medieval Estate (Berkeley, 1989).
K.L.Reyerson, 'Commercial Fraud in the Middle Ages: the Case of the Dissembling Pepperer', Journal of Medieval History, 8 (1982).
K.L.Wood-Legh, ed., A Small Household of the XVth Century: Being the Account Book of Munden's Chantty, Bridport (Manchester, 1956).
K.Staniland, 'Clothing Provision and the Great Wardrobe in the Mid-Thirteenth Century', Textile History, 22 (1991).
K.Staniland, 'The Great Wardrobe Accounts as a Source for Historians of Fourteenth-Century Clothing and Textiles', Textile History, 20 (1989).
L.C.Hector, The Handwriting of English Documents (London, 2nd edn. 1966).
l'T.Scully, The Art of Cookery in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge, 1995), p.109.
M.Aston, ed., Medieval Fish, Fisheries and Fishponds in England (British Archaeological Reports, British Ser., 182, Oxford, 1988).
M.Bonney, Lordship and the Urban Community: Durham and its Overlords, 1250-1540 (Cambridge, 1990).
M.J.Bennett, Community, Class and Careerism: Cheshire and Lancashire Society in the Age of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (Cambridge, 1983).
M.K.James, Studies in the Medieval Wine Trade, ed. E.M.Veale (Oxford, 1971).
M.Kowaleski, Local Markets and Regional Trade in Medieval Exeter (Cambridge, 1995).
M.L.Ryder, 'Livestock Remains from Four Medieval Sites in Yorkshire', IX (1961).
M.L.Ryder, 'Medieval Sheep and Wool Types', Agricultural History Review, XXXII (1984).
M.Mate, 'Medieval Agrarian Practices: The Determining Factors', Agricultural History Review, XXXBI (1985).
M.Prestwich, R.H.Britnell and R.Frame, eds., Thirteenth Century England 6: Proceedings of the Durham Conference (Woodbridge, 1997).
M.Threlfall-Holmes, 'Late Medieval Iron Production and Trade in the northEast', Archaeologia Aeliana, 5th Ser., XXVII (1999).
M.Threlfall-Holmes, 'Provisioning a Medieval Monastery: Durham Cathedral Priory's Purchases of Imported Goods, 1464-1520' (unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Durham, 1997).
MAMA MIME NM MEISMIIM IMMO. 1111 IRWIIMASI NMI MMINE . 6KINAMJ . 1111 a) ,Jej ba .5 m„ *5 r o 0
mentioned. Other varieties are each mentioned only occasionally -bastard in 1464-5; romney and muscatel in 1503-4; and romney again
N.B.Harte and K.G.Ponting eds., Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe, memorial volume for E.M. Carus-Wilson (London, 1983).
N.B.Harte, 'State Control of Dress and Social Change in Pre-Industrial England', in D.C.Coleman and A.H.John eds., Trade, Government and Economy in PreIndustrial England: Essays presented to F.J.Fisher (London, 1976).
N.Evans, The East Anglian Linen Industry: Rural Industry and Local Economy, 1500-1850 (Pasold Studies in Textile History, 5, 1985).
N.H.Nicolas, Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York: Wardrobe Accounts of Edward the Fourth. With a Memoir of Elizabeth of York and Notes (London, 1830).
N.J.Mayhew, 'Population, Money Supply and the Velocity of Circulation in England, 1300-1700', Economic History Review, 2nd Ser., 48 (1995).
N.Morimoto, 'The Demand and Purchases of Wine of Durham Cathedral Priory in the First Half of the Fifteenth Century', The Nagoya Gakuin Daigalcu Ronshu, 20 (1983).
N.S.B.Gras, The Evolution of the English Corn Market from the Twelfth to the Eighteenth Century (New York, 1915, reissued 1967).
P.Adman, S.W.Baskerville and K.F.Beedham, 'Computer-Assisted Record Linkage: or How Best to Optimise Links Without Generating Errors', History and Computing, 4 (1992).
P.Bowden, 'Agricultural Prices, Farm Profits and Rents', in J.Thirsk, ed., The Agrarian History of England and Wales, . IV, 1500-1640, (Cambridge, 1967), pp. 593-695.
P.Denley and D.Hopkin, History and Computing (Manchester, 1987).
P.Heath, Medieval Clerical Accounts (Borthwick Institute of Historical Research St.Anthony's Hall Publications, 26, 1964).
R.A.Lomas, 'A Northern Farm at the End of the Middle Ages: Elvethall Manor, Durham, 1443/4 — 1513/4', Northern History, 18, (1982). R.A.Lomas, 'A Priory and its Tenants', in Britnell, ed., Daily Life in the Late Middle Ages.
R.A.Lomas, 'Durham Cathedral Priory as a Landowner and a Landlord, 1290-1540' (unpublished PhD thesis, University of Durham, 1973).
R.A.Lomas, 'The Priory of Durham and its Demesnes in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth centuries', Economic History Review, 2nd Ser., 31, (1978).
R.E.Prothero, English Farming Past and Present (London, 1912).
R.H.Britnell, `Avantagium Mercatoris: A Custom in Medieval English Trade', Nottingham Medieval Studies, xxiv (1980).
R.H.Britnell, ed., Daily Life in the Late Middle Ages (Stroud, 1998).
R.H.Britnell, Growth and Decline in Colchester, 1300-1525 (Cambridge, 1986).
R.H.Snape, English Monastic Finances in the Later Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1926).
R.Horrox, ed., Selected Rentals and Accounts of Medieval Hull, 1293-1528, (Yorkshire Archaeological Society Record Series, CXLI, 1983).
R.Trow-Smith, A History of British Livestock Husbandry to 1700 (London, 1957).
R.W.Hunt, W.A.Pantin and R.W.Southern, eds., Studies in Medieval History presented to Frederick Maurice Powicke (Oxford, 1948).
respectively for valet's garments. Were these simply customary payments one would expect to see much more standardised sums appearing. Whole garments were bought on a regular basis by the almoner and the sacrist, and on one occasion in this period by the
S.J.Gunn, Early Tudor Government, 1485-1558 (London, 1995).
S.King, 'Historical Demography, Life-Cycle Reconstruction and Family Reconstitution: New Perspectives', History and Computing, 8 (1996).
S.L.Thrupp, The Merchant Class of Medieval London (1300-1500) (Chicago, 1948). S.L.Thrupp, 'The Grocers of London', in E.Power and M.M.Postan, ed., Studies in English Trade.
S.Mennell, All Manners of Food (Oxford, 1985).
S.V.Hopkins and E.H.Phelps-Brown, 'Seven Centuries of the Prices of Consumables', Ecomica, New Ser., 23 (1956).
T.Austin, ed., Two Fifteenth Century Cookery Books (Early English Text Society, Original Ser., 91, 1888).
T.Fry, ed., The Rule of St.Benedict (Minnesota, 1981).
T.H.Aston et.al., eds., Social Relations and Ideas (Cambridge, 1983).
T.Scully, The Art of Cookery in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge, 1995).
The Oxford English Dictionary (Oxford, 2nd edn. 1989).
W.A.Pantin, ed., Documents Illustrating the Activities of the General and Provincial Chapters of the English Black Monks, 1215-1540 (Camden Society, 3rd. Ser., XLV, XLVII and LW, 1931-1937).
W.F.Nijenhuis, ed., The Vision of Edmund Leversedge (Nijmegen, 1991), C.Noble, Farming and Gardening in Late Medieval Norfolk; Norwich Cathedral Priory Gardeners' Accounts, 1329-1530 (Norfolk Record Society, 61, 1997).
W.G.Hoskins, 'English Provincial Towns in the Early Sixteenth Century', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th Ser., 6 (1956).
W.G.Hoskins, 'Harvest Fluctuations and English Economic History, 1480-1619', Agricultural History Review, XII (1964).
W.Hooper, 'The Tudor Sumptuary Laws', Economic History Review, XXX (1915).
W.R.Childs, Anglo-Castilian Trade in the Later Middle Ages (Manchester, 1978).
W.R.Childs, ed., The Customs Accounts of Hull 1453-1490 (Yorkshire Archaeological Society Record Ser., 144, 1986).
Y.S.Brenner, 'The Inflation of Prices in Early Sixteenth Century England', Economic History Review, 2nd Ser., 14 (1961).