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Disease management in shrimp farming

By Celia R. Lavilla-Pitogo

Abstract

Shrimp monoculture system have been beset with devastating losses of infection and environment dedriration On a global scale, effort to make shrimp culture a susrainable industry are warranted because of the high value and demand of shrimp. A Code of practice for Sustainable Shrimp Farming prepared by the Global Aquaculture alliance has been adopted by various shrimp producing countries addressing issues like mangroves, site evaluation, design and construction, feeds and feed use, shrimp health management , therapeutic agents and other chemicals, generaly pomd operations, effuents and solid wastes, and community and employee relations. Shrimp hatchar have benefited from technological advance in practically every aspect of rrearing including implements tocontrol water quality, eliminate pathogens, and improved nutrition through in many cases, high survivalconnot exactly be equated with good quality. Thus a closer look at the hacheries is issential to insure that rearing protocols match the conditions to which postlarvae will be exposed to upon stocking in ponds. Compiled information on the estimated number of hatcheries and farms in major shrimp growing areas in Asia show a relatively smaller number of small independent hatcheries compared to farms, which demonstratrs that effective disease control programmes need to emanate from hatcheries. Presenly, three programmes for the hatchery need serious attention. These are (a) the continued implementation of fry analysis procedures, not only as a marketing tool, but so as to exclude pathogenic organism from ponds, (b) adherence to agreed-upon codes of practice and conformity with accepted and guidelines on live transfers to minimise disease apread, and (c) development fo a reliable source of domesticated broodstock and incorporating specific pathogen free (SPT) and specifie pathogen resistant (SRP) stock in these progrmmes to minimise or eliminate dependence on wild broodstock. One of the main constrants is the lack of cost-efficient methods tho prevent and correct environmental detdrioration, and to maintain biosecurity. In addition to providing primary health care. disease control strategies should be a combination of pathogrn exclusion and enviroment management: the farmer for primary pathogens such as viruses and the latter for secondary pathogens like bacteria, whose pathogenicity is heightened by environmental degradation and lowered resistance of shrimps. Shrimp farming should start employing system to manage and lessen waste and the outflow of organic pollutants that could contribute to self pollution or deterioration of the quality of receiving waters. these include improved feeds and conversion ratios to make feed utilisation more economical and efficient, implementation of recirculating or zero discharge technology, improving the efficiency of acration, systems, implementation of pond siting, understanding of the of the ponds ecosystem and the role of microbes in the environment. In addition to imlpementing disease control measures and ensuring product quality in various industry sectors, approaches need to be welded together for a holistic apprach to health management

Topics: Crustacea, Shrimp culture, Fish health, Diseases, Disease transmission, Prophylaxis, Viral diseases, Philippines, Shrimps, VF SP 282
Publisher: INFOFISH
Year: 2002
OAI identifier: oai:repository.seafdec.org.ph:10862/477
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