Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Changes in Suid and Caprine Husbandry Practices Throughout Dynastic Egypt Using Linear Enamel Hypoplasia (LEH)

By CATHERINE LOUISE BERTINI

Abstract

Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) is the most commonly identified form of enamel defect in teeth. Defined as a deficiency in enamel thickness encountered during dental development, LEH can occur as horizontal lines or depressions of irregular enamel, or clusters of pitting on the enamel surface. These defects are caused by physiological stresses such as disease or poor nutrition, causing a disruption of enamel secretion. \ud Studies on LEH have been used as a way to understand the health status and husbandry practices of both ancient and modern animal populations. As there are no data that describe the prevalence of LEH in either ancient or modern Egyptian animal material, this thesis aims to establish the frequency of LEH in the archaeological remains of pigs and caprines (sheep and goat) from thirteen different ancient Egyptian sites, investigating the links between LEH, possible changes in husbandry practices, geographic, as well as site contexts, and compare it to modern Egyptian pig and caprine data from similar geographic contexts.\ud Results indicate that enamel hypoplasia is common throughout the thirteen different sites throughout Egypt discussed in this thesis. These defects are related to key events in the animal’s life such as weaning, nutritional stresses associated with winter, along with environmental stresses and diachronic changes including the annual flood of the Nile (which is known to change over time) and management choices (i.e. sites with free-ranging versus penned animals). \u

Year: 2011
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.dur.ac.uk:1388
Provided by: Durham e-Theses

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian. doi
  2. A Field Guide to the Mammals of Africa including Madagascar.
  3. A guide for the distinction of species, sex, and body size of sheep and goat.” doi
  4. A Handbook to the Breeds of the World. E. Eussex: Helm Information.
  5. A Hierogylyphic Guide to Ancient Egyptian Painting and Sculpture. London: Thames and Husdson. doi
  6. A History of Domesticated Animals. doi
  7. (1997). A method for converting Grant Mandibular Wear Stages to Payne style Wear Stages in sheep, cow, and pig.” Archaeological Sciences
  8. A metrical analysis of a collection of modern goats (Capra hircus aegargus and C.h.hircus) from Iran and Iraq: Implications for the study of caprine domestication.” doi
  9. A Natural History of Domesticated Animals. Cambridge: doi
  10. A New (Guinea) Model for Pig Domestication in the Near East. Ancestors for the Pigs: Pigs in Prehistory. Sarah
  11. A Pig for all Seasons? Approaches to the Assessment of Second Farrowing
  12. A Preliminary Report on the Excavation of the Tomb of the Sons of Ramses II in the Valley of the Kings. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.
  13. A Protocol for recording linear enamel hypoplasia on archaeological pig teeth.” doi
  14. A Ritual Deposit from Saqqara?” Behavior Behind Bones. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  15. A Short Account Account of the Nile Basin. doi
  16. A study in behavior and evolution. doi
  17. A study of mandibular teeth from Romano-British contexts at Maxey.” Archaeology and Environment in the Lower Welland Valley,
  18. A Survey of the Ancient City of El-‘Amarna. London: Egypt Exploration Society.
  19. A Tombe d'Ankhtifi et la Tombe de Sébekhotep. Le Caire: l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale Velde, doi
  20. Abydos Description des Fouilles. Exécutées sur l’Emplacement de Cette Ville. Hildesheim: Georgolm Verlag. Matschke,
  21. Abydos.” The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. doi
  22. Accuracy of Age Determinations from Tooth Crown Heights: A Test Using an Expanded Sample of Known Age Red Deer (Cervus elaphus).” Recent Advances in Ageing and Sexing Animal Bones. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  23. Age Attribution in Domestic Sheep by Skeletal and Dental Maturation: a Pilot Study of Avaliable Sources.” doi
  24. Ages of Epiphyseal Closure in Feral and Domestic Goats and Ages of Dental Eruption.” doi
  25. Aging European Wild Hogs by Dentition.”
  26. Amon-Rê á Kerma” Hommages á Fayza Haikal. Cairo: Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale.
  27. An Album of the American Cowboy.
  28. An Egyptian Bestiary. London: Thames and Hudson Ghoneim,
  29. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge: doi
  30. Ancient Egypt: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In Press. “The Equids of Tell el-Borg”.
  31. Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization. doi
  32. Ancient Egyptian Literature. Volume II: The New Kingdom. Berkeley: University of California Press. Linseele, Veerle In Preperation. “Saïs: report of the analysis of the fish bone remains” Lloyd, Alan B.
  33. Ancient Records of Egypt Volume IV. doi
  34. and eruption of permanent incisor teeth in Romney sheep.”
  35. and Postholes: Prehisotric Sais.”
  36. and Subsistence at Merimda Beni Salama.” doi
  37. and the Search for Cultural Origins: The Question of Islamic Pig Prohibition (and doi
  38. Animal Behavior in Egyptian Art. Representations of the Natural 333 World in Memphite Tomb Scenes.
  39. Animal Domestication and the Animal Cult in dynastic Egypt.”
  40. Animal Domestication in the Prehistoric Near East.” doi
  41. Animal Mummies.” Divine Creatures. Animal Mummies in Ancient Egypt. doi
  42. Animal Remains from the Late Paleolithic Sequence at Wadi Kubbaniya.” The Prehistory of Wadi Kubbaniya. Volume 2: Stratigraphy, Paleoeconomy, and Environment. Assembled by Fred Wendorf and Romuald Schild, Edited by Angela doi
  43. Animals in Libya.” Background to Evolution in
  44. Animals: the Egyptian Origins. Warminister,
  45. Apis.” Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. doi
  46. Appropriate Technology and Public Policy: The Urban Waste Management System in doi
  47. Archaeological Explorations in the Middle East. doi
  48. Archaeology of the Holy Land.
  49. Assessing the reliability of criteria used to identify mandibles and mandibular teeth in sheep, Ovis, and goats, doi
  50. Assessment of systemic physiological perturbations from dental enamel hypoplasias and associated histological structures.” doi
  51. Behavioral Aspects of Animal Domestication.” The Quarterly Review of Biology.
  52. Bezoar (Capra aegagrus) Is a Matriarchal Candidate for Ancestor of Domestic Goat (Capra hircus):
  53. Breaking the mold: a consideration of variation in the evolution of animal domestication.” The First Steps of Animal Domestication.
  54. Butchery at the Workmen's Village (WV), Tell el-Amarna, Egypt.” Whither Environmental Archaeology? Oxford: Oxbow Monograph.
  55. Calendars.” The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Donald B. doi
  56. Catalogue Général of Egyptian Antiquities in the Cairo Museum. Non Human Mummies. Cairo: The Supreme Council of Antiquities Press.
  57. Chromosomal Homologies, and Evolutionary Relationships Among Wild Sheep, Goats, doi
  58. Classifications Adopted for the Caprine Survey.”Wild Sheep and Goats and their Relatives. Status survey and conservation action plan for Caprinae.
  59. Commentary 1-90. doi
  60. Commodity Prices from the Ramessid Period. An Economic Study of the Village of Necropolis Workmen at Thebes. doi
  61. communication: the timing of linear enamel hypoplasias on human anterior teeth.” doi
  62. Components of variation in measurements of pig bones and teeth, and the use of measurements to distinguish wild from domestic pig remains.”
  63. Culture of the Pastoral Tuareg with Particular Reference to the Tuareg of Ahaggar and Ayr. Copenhagen: Nationalmuseets Skrifter Etnografisk Raekke, 9 doi
  64. Current Views on Sus phylogeography and pig domestication as seen through modern mtDNA studies.” Pigs and Humans 10,000 Years of Interaction. Umberto Albarella, Keith Dobney, Anton Ervynck, and Peter Rowley-Conwy, Editors.
  65. Cuts: Meat Production in Ancient Egypt. Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters en Department Oosterse Studies.
  66. Decision Making in Subsistence Herding of Sheep and Goats in the Middle East.
  67. Defective enamel histology of prehistoric teeth from Illinois.” doi
  68. Dental evidence for physiological disruption: biocultural interpretations from the eastern Spanish borderlands,
  69. (1982). Detailed recording of tooth wear (Grant,
  70. Detecting the seasonal slaughtering of domestic mammals: Inferences from the detailed recording of tooth eruption and wear.” doi
  71. Development of early stock rearing doi
  72. Development, Structure, and Function. Missouri: 343 Mosby Elsevire.
  73. Développement dentaire des molaires chez le mouton. Etude morphologique, radiographique, et microdurométrique.”
  74. Die Okonomische Bedeutung des Rindes im Alten Agypten.
  75. Die Tierknochenfunde aus der neolithischen Siedlung von Merimde Benisalâme am westlichen Nildelta. Munich: Institut für Paläoanatomie,
  76. Die Tierreste von Maadi und Wadi Degla.” Maadi III: The Nonlithic Small Finds and Structural Remains from the Predynastic Settlement. Ibrahim Rizkana and Jürgen Seeher, Editors. Mainz am Rhein:
  77. Die Wohnhäuser in Tell El-Amarna. doi
  78. diet at the Workers’ Town, Giza, Egypt.” Anthropological Approaches to Zooarchaeology. Complexity, Colonialism, and Animal
  79. Distinguishing sheep and goats using dental morphology and stable carbon isotopes in C4 grassland environments.” doi
  80. Diversity in Modern Sheep. Implications for Domestication.” Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological
  81. DNA systematics and evolution of the artiodactyl family Bovidae.” doi
  82. Domesticated livestock and indigenous animals in Egyptian agriculture.”
  83. Domestication and bone structure in sheep and goats.”
  84. Early Hydraulic Civilization in Egypt. A Study in Cultural Ecology. doi
  85. Economics with an Entrepreneurial Spirit: Early Bronze Trade with Late Predynastic Egypt.” doi
  86. Editors. Canbridge: Cambridge University Press. von den Driesch, Angela and Joachim Boessneck
  87. Egypt: Chapter III. The Neolithic and Chalcolithic Communities of doi
  88. Egypt’s First Pharaohs and the Cult of Osiris. doi
  89. Egyptian Household Animals.
  90. Elephantine.” Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Kathryn Bard, doi
  91. Elephantine.” The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. doi
  92. Emergent Complexity in the Ancient Near East.” Ancestors for the Pigs: Pigs doi
  93. (2004). Enamel defects in sheep and goat teeth.”
  94. Enamel hypoplaisa in the deciduous teeth of Great Apes: do differences in defect prevalence imply differential levels of physiological stress? doi
  95. Enamel hypoplaisa in the deciduous teeth of Great Apes: variation in prevalence and timing of defects.” doi
  96. Enamel Hypoplasia in Modern and Archaeological Caprine Populations: The Development and Application of a New Methodological Approach.
  97. Enamel hypoplasia in the low status Maya population of Prehispanic Copan,
  98. Enamel hypoplasia provides insights into early systematic stress in wild and captive giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis).” doi
  99. Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. doi
  100. Epiphysial Fusion and Tooth Eruption of Feral Goats from Moffatdale,
  101. Evaluation of molar size as a basis for distinguishing wild boar from domestic swine: Employing the present to decipher the past.” Ancestors for the Pigs: Pigs in Prehistory. Sarah
  102. Evidence for Husbandry from the Early Neolithic site of Ganj Dareh in Western Iran. doi
  103. Evolution and taxonomy of the wild species of the genus doi
  104. Evolutionary history of the genus Capra (Mammalia, Artiodactyla): doi
  105. (1988). Excavation of Petrie’s ‘Workmen’s Barracks’ at doi
  106. (1948). Excavations at Kom El-Hisn,
  107. Excavations at Mendes.
  108. Excavations at Tell el-Amarna: A Preliminary Report.” doi
  109. Excavations at Tell el-Amarna.” doi
  110. Food For an Egyptian City.” Whither Environmental Archaeology? Oxford: Oxbow Monograph.
  111. Food: The Gift of Osiris. doi
  112. further development of the recording and interpretation of linear enamel hypoplasia in archaeological pig populations.” doi
  113. Genetic aspects of domestication, common breeds, and their origin.” The Genetics of the doi
  114. Geograficheskoe rasprostranenia dikkih baranov Starovo Sveta. St. Petersburg: Akademia Nauk SSSR.
  115. Goat Production in the Tropics. doi
  116. God of Confusion. A Study of his role in Egyptian Mythology and Religion. doi
  117. Histological enamel indicator of childhood stress in prehistoric skeletal samples.” doi
  118. Historical Records of Ramses III: The Texts in Medinet Habu. doi
  119. Historische und moderne Nilstände. Untersuchungen zu den Pegelablesungen des Nils von der Frühzeit bis in die
  120. (1999). History of Egypt: The Middle Kingdom.” doi
  121. Hogs and Hygiene.” doi
  122. Holocene Ecology and Prehistory in the Egyptian Sahara.” The Sahara and the Nile. Quaternary Environments and Prehistoric Occupation in doi
  123. Human Ecology on the Deh Luran Plain. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, doi
  124. Inquiry into Pork Consumption in Egypt from Prehistoric to New Kingdom doi
  125. Intermediate Period: A Time of doi
  126. Interpreting developmental stress in archaeological pigs: The chronology of linear enamel hypoplasia.” doi
  127. July-August Rainfall in west-central Kenya.” doi
  128. Kill-Off Patterns in Sheep and Goats: The Mandibles From Asvan doi
  129. Kingdom Patterns of Animal Use and the Value of Faunal Data in Modeling Socioeconomic Systems.” doi
  130. Knogler af Dyr. Plantelevninger.” Affaldsdynger fra Stenaldern i Danmark.
  131. Kom El-Hisn: Excavation of an Old Kingdom Settlement in the Egyptian Delta. doi
  132. Kom el-Hisn.” Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. doi
  133. Kom Firin I: The Ramesside Temple and the Site Survey.
  134. Königin Nofret-ete aus den Grabungen 1912/13 in Tell elAmarna.
  135. L’Origine d’Amon de Karnak” Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale 65: doi
  136. la foundation de Thébes.” Bulletin de la Société Française d’Egyptologie 26: Pg.33-41.
  137. Large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis of the domestic goat reveals six haplogroups with high diversity.” doi
  138. Les fouilles de Tell El Amarna a l'epoque amarnienne.
  139. Linear Enamel Hypoplasia in gibbons (Hylobates lar carpenteri).” doi
  140. Lining up on the M1: a tooth defect as a bio- indicator for environment and husbandry in ancient pigs.” doi
  141. London: Egypt Exploration Foundation.
  142. Macroeconomics from the Beginning. The General Theory, Ancient Markets, and the Rate of Interest.
  143. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses of Linear Enamel Hypoplaisa in Plio-Pleistocene South African Hominins with respect to aspects of enamel development and morphology.” doi
  144. Mapping Project 2006-2007 Season.
  145. matters’: how and why biometry is still important in zooarcaheology.” Bones and the Man. Studies in honor of Don Brothwell. Keith Dobney and Terry O’Connor, Editors. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Albarella, Umberto and
  146. Measurements of a group of adult female Shetland sheep skeletons from a single flock: a baseline for zooarchaeologists.” doi
  147. Medineh (Heracleopolis Magna) with Chapters on Mendes, the nome of Thoth, and Leontopolis. London: Egypt Exploration Fund.
  148. Militiary Site on ‘The Ways of Horus’: Tell el-Borg 1999-2001: A Preliminary Report.”
  149. Mineral metabolism and microstructural defects in primate teeth.” doi
  150. (1937). Monthly and Annual Rainfall Totals and Number of Rainy Days at Stations in and Near the Nile Basin for the period ending
  151. Morphological Distinctions between the Mandibular Teeth of Young Sheep, Ovis, and Goats, doi
  152. Neolithic Pigs from Durrington Walls, Wiltshire, England: a biometrical database.” doi
  153. Neolithic Subsistence and Settlement in the Fayyum Oasis of Egypt.” doi
  154. New evidence of the status of pigs at Neolithic çayönü doi
  155. Nile Flood Variation and Political Discontinuities in Pharaonic Egypt.” From Hunters to Farmers: The Causes and Consequences of Food Production in Africa.
  156. Nile.” The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient doi
  157. (1992). Old Kingdom Delta: the Evidence from Mendes and Kom El-Hisn.” House and Palace
  158. On the difficulty of detecting seasonal slaughtering of sheep.” doi
  159. On the possible ritual marking of a young XVIIIth dynasty pig skull from Tell el-Amarna, doi
  160. Osteological differences between sheep (Ovis ariea Linné) and Goats (Capra hircus Linné). Science
  161. Patterns of Activity at the Workmen’s Village.” Amarna Reports I. 339 London: Egypt Exploration Society.
  162. Pig Farming. Starting Out. E-Publication http://www.lulu.com/product/ebook/free-range-pig-farming---starting-out-ebook/14689920.
  163. Pig Hunting and Husbandry in Prehistoric Italy: a Contribution to the Domestication Debate.”
  164. Pig Use and Abuse in the Ancient Levant: Ethnoreligious BoundaryBuilding with Swine.” Ancestors for the Pigs: Pigs
  165. Pigs in Ancient Egypt.” Ancestors for the Pigs: Pigs in Prehistory. Ed. Sarah Nelson.
  166. pitfalls in the diagnosis of linear enamel hypoplasia in the cheek teeth of cattle.” doi
  167. Predynasic Egyptian Bovid Burial in the Elite Cemetery at Hierakonpolis.” Behavior Behind Bones. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  168. Predynastic Transition in the Fayum Depression.” The Followers of Hours. Studies Dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman.
  169. Predynastic- Early Occupations at Mendes: A Preliminary Report” The Nile Delta in Transition: Fourth- Third Millenium BC. Tel Aviv: Brink pg.
  170. Prehistoric domestication of animals: doi
  171. Prehistoric Fauna from Shanidar, doi
  172. Preliminary Observations on the Mammalian Fauna from Predynastic Localities at Hierakonpolis.” The Followers of Horus. Studies Dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  173. Preliminary report of the excavations at Tell el-Amarnah, 1931-2.” doi
  174. Preliminary Report on the Faunal Remains from the Workmen's Village.” Amarna Reports I. London: Egypt Exploration Society.
  175. (2000). Recent Work at Sais (Sa al-Hagar)” Egyptology at the Dawn of the Tewnty-First Century.
  176. Reconciling Rates of Long Bone Fusion and Tooth Eruption and Wear in Sheep (Ovis) and Goat (Capra).” Recent Advances in Ageing and Sexing Animal Bones. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  177. Reconciling rates of long bone fusion in tooth eruption and wear in sheep (Ovis) and goat (Capra).” Recent
  178. Reconstructing impairment of secretroy ameloblasts function in procine teeth by analysis of morphological alterations in dental enamel.”
  179. (2006). Recovering animal bone at the house of the high priest Panehsy.” http://www.amarnaproject.com/pages/recent_projects/faunal_human/2006.shtml Payne,
  180. Reference Codes for Wear Stages in the Mandibular Cheek Teeth of Sheep and Goats. doi
  181. Reflections on the Interactions Between People and Pigs.” Ancestors for the Pigs: Pigs
  182. Religion in Ancient Egypt. London: Routledge Baines, doi
  183. Remarques sur le porc at le sanglier dans l’Égypte ancienne.” Bulletin de l’Institut d’Egypte. 19 Pg.
  184. (1984). Remarques sur qelques représentations de divinités-béliers et sur un groupe d’objects de culte conservés au musée du
  185. Report on the 1985 Excavations. Building 250: A set of animal pens.” in Amarna Reports, Volume III.
  186. Report on the 1985 Excavations. Building 300: A set of animals pens.” in Amarna Reports, Volume III. Barry Kemp, Editor. London: Egypt Exploration Society
  187. Report on the 1986 Excavations, Building 200: Animal pens and plant beds. in Amarna Reports, Volume IV. Barry Kemp, Editor. London: Egypt Exploration Society Bonnet,
  188. Report on the 38 th season of excavation and restoration on the island of Elephantine.”
  189. Reproductive performance of local Egyptian sheep and goat breeds and their crosses with imported temperate breeds.”
  190. Review of Predynastic Development in the Nile Valley.” doi
  191. Saugetiere: Artiodactyla 8 (16).” Handbuch der Zoologie.
  192. Schwarzwild.”Die Altersbestimmung des erlegten Wildes. Berlin: Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag.
  193. Severe undernutrition in growing and adult animals 7. Development of the skull, jaw, and teeth in pigs.”
  194. Siedlungsfunde aus dem Frühen Alten Reich in Giseh : Österreichische ausgrabungen 1971-1975. Vienna: Verlag Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. doi
  195. Specialized Animal Economy in the Ancient Near East. Washington DC: doi
  196. Study of the Origin of the Dometic Pig Estimated from the Near-Complete mtDNA
  197. Subsistence in Predynastic Egypt.” From Hunters to Farmers: The Cause and Consequences of Food Production in Africa.
  198. (2004). Tell el-Borg on Egypt’s Eastern Frontier: A Preliminary Report on the 2002 and doi
  199. Territirie et Métropole. Cairo: Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale. doi
  200. the 35 th season of excavation and restoration on the island of Elephantine.”
  201. (2000). The Abydos Cemeteries in the Late Old Kingdom.” Egyptology at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century.
  202. The Abydos Decree of Seti I at doi
  203. The Age Profile of Gazelles Predated by Ancient Man in Israel: Possible Evidence for a Shift from Seasonality to Sedentism in the Natufian.” Paléorient 9: Pg doi
  204. The Ageing of Domestic Animals.” Science and Archaeology. London: Thames and Hudson.
  205. The Analysis of Urban Animal Bone Assemblages: A Handbook for Archaeologists. doi
  206. (1966). The Animal Bones.” Durrington Walls Excavations doi
  207. The Animal Pens (Building 400)” Amarna Reports I. London: Egypt Exploration Society.
  208. The Animal Remains from Four Sites in the Kermanshah Valley, Iran: Asiab, Sarab, Dehsavar, and Siahbid. The Faunal Evolution,
  209. The Animal World of the Pharaohs. doi
  210. The Application of Hybrid Neural Network Models to Estimate Age of Domestic Ungulates.” doi
  211. The Awassi sheep with special reference to the improved dairy type.” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Animal production and health paper 57. Ervynck,
  212. The Beginnings of Animal Domestication in the Near East.”
  213. The behavior guide to African mammals : including hoofed mammals, carnivores, primates. doi
  214. The behavior of sheep and goats.” The Behavior of Domestic Animals.
  215. The breeding season of the sheep with particular reference to its modification using light.” doi
  216. The Cemeteries of Abydos: Work of the Season 1925- 26.” doi
  217. (1922). The City of Akhenaten, Part 1. Excavations of 1921 and
  218. The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames and Hudson. doi
  219. The Complete Pyramids. doi
  220. The Contemporary Land Mammals of Egypt (Including Sinai). Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History. doi
  221. The cult and necropolis of the sacred ram at Mendes.” in Divine Creatures. Animal Mummies in Ancient Egypt. Salima Ikram, doi
  222. The Dark Ages in Ancient History. doi
  223. The Development of Productive Subsistence Economies in the Nile Valley: Zooarchaeological Analysis at El-Mahâsna and South Abydos, Upper Egypt. PhD dissertation,
  224. The Domestication of the Pig (Sus scrofa). New Challenges and Approaches.” Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological
  225. The Egyptian Predynastic: A Review of the Evidence.” doi
  226. The Excavations of the Egyptian University in teh Neolithic Site at Maadi. First Preliminary Report Season 1930-31. doi
  227. The goat domestication process inferred from large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis of wild and domestic individuals.” doi
  228. the heart of darkness: the latest discoveries from Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham (Egypt).” Antiquity 75 Pg.
  229. The influence of environmental factors on enamel hypoplasia in domestic sheep and goats in southern Kenya Masailand.” In
  230. The influence of the level of nutrition during winter and spring upon oestrous in the ewe.” World Review
  231. The Literature of ancient Egypt: an anthology of stories, instructions, stelae, autobiographies, and poetry. doi
  232. The Main Chapel at the Amarna Workmen’s Village and its wall paintings. London: Egypt Exploration Society. 351 Wegner, doi
  233. The Middle Kingdom Renaissance.” The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Ian Shaw,
  234. The Mortuary Complex of Senwosret III: A Study of Middle Kingdom State Activity and the Cult of Osiris at Abydos. Ann Arbor: UMI Dissertation Services.
  235. The Nile: A General Account of the River and the Utilization of its Waters. doi
  236. The Origin and Early Development of Urbanism in Ancient Egypt: A Regional Study.
  237. The Origin of the Domestic Pig: Independent Domestication and Subsequent Introgression.”
  238. The Origins of the Domestic Animals of Africa. doi
  239. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. doi
  240. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Donald B. doi
  241. The Pattern of Animal Domestication in the Prehistoric Near East.” The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals doi
  242. the Pharaohs: The Prehistoric Foundations of Egyptian Civilization. doi
  243. The Pig and the Cult-Animal Set.” doi
  244. The Prehistory of Egypt. From the First Egyptians to the First Pharaohs. Translated by Ian Shaw. doi
  245. The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh. London: Histories and doi
  246. The role of faunal remains in the exploitation of the development of complex societies in south-west Iran: potential, problems, and the future.” Paléorient 11/2. doi
  247. The Role of the Pig in the Subsistence System of Ancient Egypt: A Parable on
  248. The Sheep and Its Cousins. doi
  249. The Sheep of Early Jericho.”
  250. The significance of measuring animal bones from archaeological sites.” Approaches to Faunal Analysis in the Middle East.
  251. The Social Context of Trash Disposal in an Early Dynastic Egyptian Town.” doi
  252. The Spatial Structure of Kom el-Hisn: An Old Kingdom Town in the Western Nile Delta, Egypt. Ann Arbor: UMI Dissertation Services.
  253. The Stela of Menthuweser.
  254. The Stone Village.” doi
  255. (2002). The Survey of Sais doi
  256. The Survey of Sais (Sa el-Hagar) 1997-2002. London: Egypt Exploration Society. In Press. “Canopic Settlements: Abandonment and Connections”
  257. The Survey of Sais 200-01.”
  258. The town of Syene. Preliminary report on the 1st and 2nd season
  259. The town of Syene. Report on the 3rd and 4th season in Aswan.
  260. (1999). The Town of Wah-sut at South Abydos:
  261. The transition from wild boar to domestic pig in Eurasia, illustrated by a tooth developmental defect and biometrical data. “ Pigs and Humans. 10,000 Years of Interaction. Ed. Umberto Albarella, Keith Dobney, Anton Ervynck, and Peter Rowley-Conwy.
  262. the Ungulate Mammals in the British Museum (Natural History), doi
  263. The upper Euphrates-Tigris basin: cradle of agro-pastoralism?” The First Steps of Animal Domestication: New Archaeozoological Approaches.
  264. The Use of Crown Height Measurements and Eruption-Wear Sequence to Age Horse Teeth. Ageing and Sexing Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites.
  265. The use of size index scaling techniques for research on archaeo- 342 zoological collections from the Middle East.” Historia Animalium ex Ossibus. Festschrift für Angela von
  266. The Use of Tooth Wear as a Guide to the Age of Domestic Ungulates.” Ageing and Sexing Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites.
  267. Their Prohibition.” doi
  268. (1984). Theoretical Determinants of a Herder’s Decisions: Modeling Variation in the Sheep/Goat Ratio.” Animals and Archaeology: 3. Early Herders and Their Flocks.
  269. This Flesh. Food Avoidances from Prehisotry to the Present.
  270. Time programme of the early tooth development in the domestic sheep (Ovis aries, doi
  271. Tooth development in sheep.”
  272. Tooth Eruption and Epiphysial Fusion in Pigs and Wild Boar.” Ageing and Sexing Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites.
  273. Umm el-Qa’ab.” Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt.
  274. Vertebrate Demography by Numbers: Age, Sex, and Zooarchaeological Practice.” Recent Advances in Ageing and Sexing Animal Bones. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  275. Wars, and Witches. The Riddles of Culture. doi
  276. What can developmental defects of enamel reveal about physiological stress in non-human primates?” doi
  277. Wild Sheep and Goats of the Himalaya. doi
  278. Worldwide Phylogeography of Wild Boar Reveals Multiple Centers of doi
  279. Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham I. The Temple and Chapels.
  280. Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham: The Southern Building” http://www.geocities.com/zurdig/NewsFrame.htm Snape, Steven and Penelope Wilson.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.