The goals of this work were multi-faceted, consistent with the various efforts supported by this work. Particular focus was placed on analysis of the scattering from rough ocean surfaces and comparison with experimental data. In collaboration with Prof. Mohsen Badiey of the University of Delaware, modeling efforts were expanded to include dynamic rough surface interface and near-surface bubble scattering. By continuing to expand and improve the capabilities of the numerical modeling methods, the long-term goal of this effort is to provide a useful tool for understanding the physical phenomena leading to variability in the acoustic propagation. OBJECTIVES The overall objective of this work was to study the response of the acoustic field in the presence of environmental variability, and to examine the relative effects of rough surfaces, volumetric perturbations (e.g., nonlinear internal waves, near-surface bubbles), and bottom topography. APPROACH This work continued and expanded upon previous efforts to study the effects of environmental variability on the 3-D structure of the total acoustic field (pressure, particle velocity, acoustic intensity, etc). In FY11, a 3-D version of the MMPE model was employed by Georges Dossot at URI (advise
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