An often-stated goal of service-learning is to prepare students for civic involvement, defined in this study as “involvement in civil society ” (Gottlieb & Robinson, 2002, p. 2), or to participate in the democratic process. Other authors may use terms such as civic participation, civic engagement, or cit-izenship to describe involvement or activity related to participation in the democratic process. Rhoads (1997) noted that different visions of democratic society will produce different meanings of citizen and citizenship. Westheimer & Kahne (2004) also maintained that “it is not enough to argue that demo-cratic values are as important as traditional academ-ic priorities ” and “we must ask what kind of values,” because different “political and ideological interests are embedded in or are easily attached to varied con-ceptions of citizenship ” (p. 257). Forms of Civic Involvement Models or paradigms have been developed to the-orize or explain the different forms, visions, orienta-tions, or approaches to civic involvement, and the discussions mainly focus on the concept of charity and social justice and their relationship to each other. Some theorists see charity and social justice as two ends of a continuum with social justice as the pre
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