1 Gram positive bacteria enhance HIV-1 susceptibility in


While numerous studies have shown a higher risk of acquiring HIV infection in the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the biologic mechanisms responsible for enhanced HIV acquisition are unclear. Since Langerhans cells (LCs) are suspected to be the initial HIV targets after sexual exposure, we studied whether microbial components augment HIV infection in LCs by activating TLR and NOD pattern recognition receptors. We found that TLR1/2 and TLR2/6 agonists dramatically enhanced both HIV susceptibility and replication in immature monocyte-derived LCs, whereas TLR3-5, TLR7-9, and NOD1, 2 agonists did not significantly affect HIV infection. The same infection-enhancing effects were observed when LCs were incubated with other related bacterial components as well as with whole Gram+ bacteria. In resident LCs in human skin, TLR2 agonists also significantly increased HIV susceptibility. By contrast, TLR2 agonists and related bacterial components decreased HIV susceptibility in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). We found that TLR2 activation of LCs, but not DCs, resulted in a significant down-regulation of APOBEC3G, which is a cellular restriction factor for HIV. Given these data, w

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oai:CiteSeerX.psu: time updated on 11/1/2017

This paper was published in CiteSeerX.

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